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r^- 



TRANSACTIONS 



OF THBJ 



MEDICAL SOCIETY 



OP 



NEW JEBSET, 



1867. 



NEWARK, N. J.: 

FBINTSD AT THB BYBinilO COUBIKB OFFICE, 809 BROAD ST. 
1867. 



OI^FIOEI2.S, 18 67. 



President. 

JNO; 0; TOHNBON Blaibstown. 

Vice Presidents. 

1st. THOS. J. CORSON - Trenton. 

2d, WM. PDBRSON Orange. 

8d. THOS. F. CULLEN Camden 

Corresponding Secretary. 

CHAS. HODGE, Jr... Trenton. 

Recording Secretary. 

WM. PIERSONjjR Orange. 

Treasurer. 

H. R. BALDWIN New Brunswick. 

Standing Committee. 

STEPHEN WICKE8, Permanent Chairman Orange. 

CHARLES HASBROUCK ,.;..>•> Hackknsack. 

Ft QAUNTT, j/oV, Bubuhgton. 



^d 






TRANSACTIONS 

OF THE 




dial Jamtg «f Pm f «:is«|. 



The One Hundred and First Annual Convention of the Medical 
Society of New Jersey was held at Newark, on Tuesday, May 
28th, in Council Hall, at 8 o'clock P. M. 

Dr. B. R. Bateman, President, in the Chair, supported by Vice 
Presidents Drs. Johnson and Corson. 

Dr. R. M. Bateman was appointed on the Committee of Organ- 
ization, which Committee reported by the Recording Secretary the 
following as duly accredited Delegates : 

Burlington District Society — John W. Webb, A. E, Budd, Alex. 
Elwell, Ellis P. Townsend. Members, 20. 

Camden District — Thomas P. Cullen, Alex. Marcy, H. G. Tay- 
lor, John W. Snowden. Members, 15. 

Cumberland District — S. G. Cattell, Thos. H. Tomlinson, R. M. 
Bateman, William Elmer, Jr. Members, 17. 

Essex District^-Vj. D. G. Smith, Stickney, Wm. Taylor, H. H. 
Tichenor, Arthur Ward, John P. Ward, Robert Westcptt. Mem- 
bers, 48. 

Gloucester District— Wm. K. Turner, C. P. Clark, S.,T. Miller. 
Members, 10. 

Hudson District — J. E. Culver, J. W. Hunt, S. R. Ponpan, R. 
P. Chabert, M. A. Miller. Members, 27. 

Hunterdon District — John P. Schenck. Members, 10. 



4 MEDICAL SOOIEmr OF NEW JERSEY. 

Middlesex Jbistrici — Ohdxles Dunham, Jr., G. McE. Smith, A. 
Treganowan. Members, 19. 

Mercer District — Jos. L. Bodine, 0. Shepard, Dr. Warman, W. 
W. L. Phillips. Members, 19. 

Monmouth District-^A. B. Dayton, H. G. Cook, John Cook, 
T. J. Thomason. Members, 19. 

Passaic District — A. W. Rogers, J. Quin, Orson Barnes, R. A. 
Terhune, C. S. Van Riper. Members, 20. 

Somerset District — S. K. Martin, John C. Sutphen, Jas. G. May- 
nard, H. G. Waggoner. Members, 20. 

Warren District — Lewis C. Cook, Samnel S. Kennedy. Mem- 
bers, 12. 

Sussex District — Jona. Havens, Charles R. Nelden, Charles V. 
Moore, P. W. Jacobus. Members, 19. 

The Secretary also reported the following 

OFFICERS. 

Presideni—B. R. Bateman. 

First Vice President— John C. Johnson. 

Second Vice President— T. J. Corson. 

Third Vice Prewcfen^— William Pierson, 

Corresponding Secretary — Charles Hodge, Jr. 

Recording Secretary — ^William Pierson, Jr. 

TVeasurer — H. R. Baldwin. 

Standing Committee— Dts. S. Wickes and Chas. Hasbroack. 

Fellows present or were present some time during the session — 
John W.Cniig.B. H.Stratton, Z. Read, R. S. Smith, S. H. Penning- 
ton, S. Lilly, A. B. Dayton, R. M. Cooper, T, Ryerson, J. P. Cole- 
man, J. R. Sickler, J. Blane, J. Woolverton, T. R. Yarick, E. M. 
Hunt, A. Coles. 

Ddegates from Corresponding Societies present: 
Massadkmsetts — Dr. Edward Jarns. 



MINUTES. 6 

Medical Society of the State of J^ew York — Drs. W. Govan, J. 
P. Jenkins, R. A. Varick. » 

Connecticut Medical Society — Prof. C. A. Lindsley, J. H. Beecher. 
Who, on motion of Dr. Wickes, were invited to sit as Corres- 
ponding Members. ♦ 

The minutes of the last annual meeting were read and approved. 

On motion of Dr. Pennington, the following gentlemen were in. 
vited to sit with the Association during its present sessions : 

His Honor the Governor of New Jersey, Prof Atwater, Dr. 
Hunt of the Daily Advertiser, Dr. R. J. Hammond of Rhode Island, 
Drs. Warren, Sell, Atkinson, Bates, Garrish of New York, Dr. S. 
W. Butler of Pennsylvania. 

The President then read the Annual Address, the subject of 
which was Cholera. 

On motion of Dr. Ryerson, a vote of thanks was extended to the 
President for his able and interesting address, with the request 
that he furnish the Standing Committee with a copy for publica- 
tion. 

The President announced the following Committees : 
Committee on the Treasurer's Accounts — Drs. Stratton, Hodge, 
Forman. 

Committee on Unfinished Business — Drs. R. M. Cooper, Culver, 
C. F. Clark. 

Committed on JNomtnating Officers for the Ensuing Fear— Alex. 
Marcy, Camden ; C. McK. Smith, Middlesex ; Arthur Ward, Essex ; 
John W. Webb, Burlington ; S. G. Cattell, Cumberland ; W. H. 
Turner, Gloucester ; J. B. Culver, Hudson ; John P. Schenck, Hun- 
terdon; Jos. L* Bodine, Mercer; H. G. Cook, Monmouth ; A. W. 
Rogers, Passaic; S. K. Martin, Somerset; L. C. Cook, Warren; 
Jona. Havens, Sussex. 

A communication was received from Dr. Pierson, Third Vice 
President, asking to be excused from reading an essay, having 



6 MEDICAL SOCIETT OF HEW JEBSET. 

been prevented firom preparing one by a severe injury wkkh h6 
had recently received. ^ 

By vote of the Society he was excused. 

The order of business being suspended, acting Mayor Baker 
was presented, who, on behalf of the City Grovemment, made a 
brief address of welcome to the Society, and tendered to the 
members the hospitalities of the city. 

The President replied, with thanks to the City of Newark for 
the courteous manner in which the Society was received, and for 
the accommodations freely extended to it. 

On motion, the Association adjourned, to meet to-morrow at 9| 
o'clock. 



Wednesday morning. The Society convened pursuant to ad- 
joumment) the President in the Chair. 

Prayer was offered by the Rev. Dr. Stearns. 
On motion of Dr. IL M. Cooper, it was 

Resolved, That the resident Physicians of Newark, and others 
who may be in town, be invited to be present during the sessions 
of the Society, as corresponding members ; also, the Rev. Dr. 
Steams. 

The report of the Standing Committee was read by the Chair- 
man, Dr. S. Wickes, which report was accepted, and referred to 
the Committee for publication, and the bills ordered to be 
paid. The Committee also presented a petiti(m for the forma- 
tion of a Medical Society in Atlantic coimty, together with 
the proceedings of the Physicians at their first meeting, with 
a recommendation that they l>e referred to a Special Commit- 
tee, which was adopted. The following was announced as the 
Committee : Drs. R. M. Cooper, S. Pennington, Sw Lilly. The 
Conmiittee subsequently reported that they had examined the pa- 
pers, and found the proceedings had been regular, with tiie excep. 
tion of two names of irregular Physicians on the application, and 



MINUTES. 7 

they recommended that these names be erased, and that a commis- 
sion be granted. The report wks accepted and adopted. 

Dr. B. M. Hunt, in behalf of the Committee appointed at the 
last meeting of the Society to present the sanitary and hygienic 
interests of the State to Executive and Legislative consideration, 
made a report, appended to which were the following preamble and 
resolutions : 

Whereas, we regard the public health as a matter of vital im- 
portance, needing the power of legal enactment as well as the 
efforts of medical men, therefore, 

Resolved, That we hereby express our interest in the attention 
given to the subject by his Excellency Governor Ward, in his An- 
nual Message to the last Legislature of the State, and herewith 
utter our conviction that there is much need of such legislation as 
shall secure in city and country a more general regard to well un- 
derstood sanitary principles and practices. 

Resolved, That the Committee on the subject be continued, and 
be requested on our behalf as citizens, no less than as Physicians, 
in such method as they regard best, to commend the subject to 
Executive and Legislative consideration. 

The report was accepted and the resolutions adopted. 

On motion, Dr. Hunt was requested to read a paper on Public 
Health and the importance of Sanitary Laws, before the Associa- 
tion to-day at 12J o'clock. 

The Committee to obtain the " Record of the Medical gentlemen 
of this State who have served in the Army and Navy of the 
country," made a report, which was accepted and referred to the 
Standing Committee. 

The Corresponding Secretary made the usual annual report 
which was accepted. His bill for postal expenses ($7.45) was or- 
dered to be paid. 



8 MEDICAL SOCIETY OP NEW JERSEY. 

The Treasurer submitted the following report : 

BBGEIPTS. 

Amount from late Treasurer |374 00 

Essex District Medical Society assessment S6 00 

Middlesex " " " 30 00 

Passaic " " '« 44 50 

Warren " " " 20 00 

Amount for dinner tickets (Centenary) 291 00 

(835 50 

EXFENDITUBBS. 

Bill of Corresponding Secretary $3 10 

". of Standing Committee 297 40 

" for dinner 463 00 

" of Recording Secretary 6 00 

" of Treasurer 12 50 

" of Newark Daily Advertiser 51 50 

" of Janitor for room 2^00 

$835 50 
The Committee on Treasurer's Accounts reported that they had 
examined his vouchers and compared them with his accounts, and 
found the same to be correct. 

The Treasurer presented the following bills : Newark Daily Ad- 
vertiser, $1.50 ;^St8.te Gazette, $1.00 ; Medical and Surgical Re- 
porter, $6.00. 

On motion of Dr. Lilly, the same were ordered to be paid, and 
hereafter the cost of ^all advertising to be agreed jfor prior to its 
being done. '. 

The Committee on Unfinished Business reported that they had 
examined the records"and found nothing to report. \ 

Dr. Lilly, of the Delegation to the American Medical Associa- 
tion, read a report of the meetings in 1866 and 1861 

Dr. Pieraon, of the Delegation to the Connecticpt Medical So- 
ciety, read a^report of the meeting in 1867. 

Dr. Cooper, also of the Delegation, read a report j of the meeting 
in 1866. 



V 



V 

\ 



MINUTES. 9 

Dr. E. M. Hunt, of the Delegation to the Medical Society of the 
State of New York, read a report of the meeting in 1866. 

All were accepted and referred to the Standing Committee. 

Dr. Treganowan, of the Delegation to the Medical Society of the 
State of Pennsylvania, stated that owing to a misunderstanding 
among the Delegates as to the time of the meeting of the Society, 
this Society was not represented. 

Delegations from Corresponding Societies being presented. Dr. 
Jarvis, in behalf of the Massachusetts Delegation ; Dr. Lindsley, in 
behalf of the Connecticut ; and Dr. Go van, in behalf the New York, 
duly responded. 

Dr. Almy, of Cincinnati, late Vice President of the American 
Medical Association, being present, made a brief response to his 
presentation. 

Dr. J. V. Schenck, the regular Essayist, read a paper on Throm- 
bosis. 

On motion, the thanks of the Association were presented to Dr. 
Schenck for his interesting paper, and a copy requested for publi- 
cation in the Transactions. 

Prof J. C. Hutchinson, of Long Island College Hospital, being 
present, was invited to a seat as a Corresponding Member. 

On motion of Dr. Pennington, the following resolution was 
adopted : 

Resolved, That the Standing Committee be requested to consider 
and report at the next annual meeting, some measures for impart- 
ing greater interest to its proceedings and making them more 
practically useful. 

By vote of the Society, the Standing Committee were given dis- 
cretionary power to publish from five hundred to one thousand 
copies of the Transactions. 

Dr. Ryerson presented the following : 

Resolved, That a Committee of five members be appointed to re- 
2 



10 MEDICAL SOCIETY OP NEW JERSEY. 

port to the next meeting of this Society a plan for establishing at 
a central railroad point a State Hospital, under the auspices of this 
Society, and by legislative aid, having a definite pro rata number 
of beds free for each county of the State, when demanded by its 
authorities. 

Resolved, That the Society establish, in connection therewith, a 
Medical Library and Museum of General and Pathological An- 
atomy. 

The resolutions were adopted, and the President announced the 
following as the Committee: Drs, Ryerson, Varick, Pennington, 
Read and Dayton. 

Dr. Varick presented the following : 

Whereas, this Society has been forcibly reminded, by the expe- 
rience of its members, that the utter incompetency of many per- 
sons who are in the habit of dispensing medicines, has led to very 
serious results, involving loss of life, as in the late case in Brook- 
lyn ; and whereas, in the opinion of this Society, some stringent 
measures should be adopted to prevent these mistakes from occur- 
ring; 

Resolved^ That this Society do memorialize the Legislature to 
enact a law requiring that all dispensers of medicines, whether 
they be principals or clerks, shall be either regular medical prac- 
titioners, or shall be graduates of some recognized School of Phar- 
macy ; or in lieu of this, that all persons dispensing medicines, 
shall pass an examination before Committees, to be appointed by 
the County Medical Societies, said Committees to consist of one 
Physician and two Apothecaries, who shall be graduates in Phar- 
macy. 

Resolved, That a Committee be appointed to draw up such me- 
morial, to present it to our legislative body, and to see that it is 
duly attended to, and followed up with vigor. 

Adopted, and the following persons appointed on the Committee : 
Drs. Varick, Pierson, Sr., and Hodge. 



inNUTES 11 

On motion of Dr. Pennington : 

Resolved, That the assessment on each member of the District 
Societies for the ensuing year be two dollars. 

Dr. Jeremiah S. English, of Monmouth County, having been pre- 
viously proposed, was duly elected an honorary member of this So- 
ciety. 

Dr. Baldwin proposed Dr. Stephen Wickes, of Orange, for hon- 
orary membership. 

The time set apart for Dr. Hunt's paper having arrived, the Doc 
tor read a very interesting paper upon Public Health, &c. 

On motion, the thanks of the Society were voted to him for his 
paper, and a copy requested for publication. 

The Committee on Nominations made the following report, which 
was accepted : 

For President — John C. Johnson, Blairstown. 

First Vice President — Thomas J. Corson, Trenton. 

Second Vice President — William Pierson, Orange. 

Third Vice President — Thomas P. CuUen, Camden. 

Corresponding Secretary — C. Hodge, Jr., Trenton. 

Recording Secretary — William Pierson, Jr., Orange. 

Treasurer — H. R. Baldwin, New Brunswick. 

Standing Committee — S. Wickes, Orange ; C. Hasbrouck, Hack- 
ensack ; P. Gauntt, Burlington. 

Delegates to American Medical Association — A. W. Woodhull 
J. D. Brumley, Samuel Lilly, R. M. Cooper, J. L. Bodine, B. H. 
Stratton, H. G. Cook, T. J. Thomason, Jona. Havens, Wm. Elmer, 
Jr., George Goodell, Edward Byington, John Blane, William Pier- 
son, Jr., L. P. Jamieson. 

To the Medical Society of Connecticut — ^E. M. Hunt, P. Gauntt, 
T. R. Varick. 

To the Medical Society ofMw York — G. Grant, 0. McKnight 
Smith, H. R. Baldwin. 



12 MEDICAL SOCIETY OP NEW JERSEY. 

To the Medical Society of Massachusetts — ^R. M. Bateman, A. B. 
Dayton, John Woolverton. 

To the Medical Society of Pennsylvania — S. G. Cattell, A. S. 
Budd, Henry C. Clark. 

To the Medical Society of Ohio — J. B. Coleman, Robert West- 
cott. 

The gentlemen named by the Committee for the respective of- 
fices were duly elected, Drs. Cooper and Bateman acting as tel- 
lers. 

The Delegates, as named by the Committee, were also duly 
elected. 

On motion, the Delegates were given power to appoint substi- 
tutes. 

On motion of Dr. Corson, 

Resolved, That the next annual meeting of this Society be held 
at Princeton, on the fourth Tuesday of May, at half-past 7 o'clock 
P.M. 

On motion of Dr. Varick, 

Resolved, That a memorial page be inserted in the Transactions 
to commemorate the death of deceased members. 

Dr. A. Ruppaner, of New York, by request, addressed the So- 
ciety for a half hour, upon the science of Laryngoscopy and Rhin- 
oscopy. 

On motion, the thanks of the Association were voted to the Doc 
tor for his very interesting and instructive lecture. 

Dr. Garrish, of New York, made some remarks upon the use of 
Rhynchosia Excavata in Menorrhagia, also upon the use of the 
Calabar Bean, in cases where a contraction of the pupil is de- 
sired. 

On motion of Dr. Blane, 

Resolved, That in all future publications made by order of this 
Society, containing a list of officers of said Society, instead of the 



MINUTES. IS 

name of Jacob Johnson, as being Third Vice President in the year 
1823, the name of William Johnson be placed on said list asihe 
said oflBcer, the name of Jacob Johnson having been placed on said 
list by mistake, as by reference to the original minutes of 1823 will 
appear. 

On motion of Dr. Ryerson, 

Resolved, That the District Societies be requested to circulate 
petitions for the signature of all the medical men of the State, 
praying the Legislature to enact an efficient Sanitary law. 

On motion of Dr. Baldwin, 

Resolved, That this Society gratefiilly tender their thanks to the 
Common Council of the City of Newark, and to its Board of Health 
and to its Physicians, for their courteous treatment and elegant en- 
tertainment during this the annual meeting of 1867 ; also to the Com- 
mittee of Arrangements for the very efficient manner in which they 
have provided accommodations and entertainments for the comfort 
of the Society. 

The President announced the following Committee of Arrange- 
ments for the next annual meeting : 

Drs. Wycoff, Bartine and Hodge. 

Also, the following persons as Essayists ; 

Drs. Thomas F. CuUen, Third Vice President; H. G.Cook, of 
Monmouth ; also, Dr. Ryerson, of Sussex, with the request that his 
subject shall be the " Mechanism of Labor." 

The Society adjourned sine die. 

WILLIAM PIERSON, Jb., 

Recording Secretary. 



REPOEtS OP COMMITTEES. 



The Committee appointed to obtain a record of the Medical men 
of the State who have served in the Army and Navy of the coun- 
try during the late civil war, report that they have found it 
impracticable to obtain anything like a complete personal history 
of the Medical oflScers. They present herewith a complete Roster 
of Medical officers from New Jersey who served during the late 
war. The Committee suggests that after the publication of the 
Roster in the Transactions of the Society, and its general distribu- 
tion, a special request should be made to each and all to send a 
personal history, which may be placed in the archives of the Society, 
or referred to a Committee to compile therefrom a history of the 
part taken in it by the Medical men of the State. Prom such data 
the Committee believe that a very interesting historical article may 
be prepared. 

The Committee found no means of ascertaining who among our 
Medical men served their country in the Navy Department. 

Wm. W. L. Phillips, 
A. B. Dayton, 

S. CONOVBB, 

Committee. 



REPORTS OF COUUITTEES. 



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BEP0BT8 OP COMMITTEES, 17 

ASSISTANT SURGEONS NEW JERSEY VOLS. 



DATE UF 
COMMISSION. 



Levi D. Miller 

Eugene Schumo 

John R. Hilton 

Luther F. Halsey 

John Helm 

George D. Fitch 

Gilliam C. Terliune 

William E. Mattison .... 

Jonathan C. Prescott 

Bowman Hendry 

Duncan W. Blake 

Jesse A. Cloud 

Olivers. Belden 

William Blundelle 

Bowman Hendry, sr. . . . 

William M. Cooper 

Henry M. Fagan 

Charles B. Jaques 

Luther F. Halsey 

Frank V. Paxson 

Charles S. Champion .... 

H. Genet Taylor 

William M. Lamb 

Lewis Braun 

John M. Davis 

Jesse J. Thomas 

Samuel Stelle 

Peletiah Fitch 

Joseph B. Van Sant.. . . . 

Edward Byington 

Edwin B. Young 

George T. Kibble 

John D. Heritage ^ 

Samuel T. Miller 

Uriah Gillman 

William Wallace Cornell. 

George L. Brooks 

Herbert B. Chambre. . . . 

R. Leflferts Disbrow 

George 9. Dearborn 

George Trumpore 

John W. Blackfan 

Samuel Powell 

Samuel Jones 

Stephen W. Van Duyn. . 

Emil Chlenschlager 

Cornelius Conover 



1st Inf ntry 

2d ** 

2d " 

2d " 

2d " 

2d " 

3d '' 

3d " 

3d " 

4th " 

4th " 

4th " 

5th " 

5th " 

6th " 

6th " 

6th " 

7th " 

7th " 

7th " 

7th '^ 

8th « 

8th " 

9th « 

9th " 

10th " 

10th « 

10th " 

10th " 

nth " 

nth " 

nth " 

nth " 

12th " 

12th " 

13th " 

13th " 

14th "• 

14th " 

15th " 

15th " 
1st Cavalry 

1st " 

Ist " 

1st " 
A Battery 
21st Inrtry 



Aug. 8, '62.. 
Aug. 20, '62. 
Jan. 27, '63.. 
March 9, '63. 
May 11, '63.. 
March 14, '65 
July 19, '62.. 
Aug. 20, '62. 
March 5, '63. 
Jan. 30, '62.. 
Jan. 4, '65... 
March 14, '65 
May 17, '62.. 
Aug. 20, '62. 
July 19, '62. . 
Aug. 20, '62. 
Feb. 11, '63.. 
July 19, '62.. 
Aug. 20, '62. 
Dec. 16, '64.. 
March 22, '65 
Sept. 14, '61. 
April 20, '64. 
Oct. 3, '61... 
May 1, '62... 
March 9, '62. 
Aug. 20, '62. 
Sept. 16, '62. 
March 7, '65. 
Aug. 6, '62. . 
Aug. 20, '62. 
Feb. 10, '63.. 
May 15, '63.. 
Aug. 1, 62... 
Aug. 20, '62. 
Sept. 16, '62. 
Sept. 22, '64. 
Dec. 31, 62 . 
Aug. 16, 6f . 
Aug. 20, 62. 
Dec. 15, '62.. 
March 16, '63 
Oct. 2, '63... 
Sept. 23, '64. 
April 4, '65.. 
July 27, '61.. 
May 16, '63.. 



Discharged June 23, 1864 
Discharged Jan. 8, 1863.. 
Died March 17, 1863 



Discharged June 21, 1864 
Discharged July 11, 1865 
Discharged June 23, 1864 
Resigned March 5, 1863. 
Discharged June 23, 1864 
Resigned Nov. 3, 1864.. . 
Discharged July 9, 1865. 
Discharged July 9, 1865. 
Dismissed Nov. 30, 1862. 
Resigned Sept. 24, 1864.. 
Discharged Sept. 7, 1864 

Dismissed 

Discharged April 21, 1863 
Discharged Oct. 7, 1864. 
Resigned March, 1863. , . 
Resigned May 30, 1865. . 
Discharged July 17, 1865 
Resigned March 15, 1864 
Discharged July 17, 1865 
Resigned March 20, 1862 
Discharged May 10, 1865 

Died May 4, 1862 

Resigned Sept. 10, '62. . 
Discharged July 1, '65.. 
Discharged July 1, '65. . 
Resigned March 20, '63. 

ResiguedFeb. 5, '63 

Discharged June 6, '65. 
Discharged June 6, '65. . 

Resigned Nov. 8, '64 

Discharged June 4, '65 . 
Resigned July 21, '64.. . 
Discharged June 8, '65. 
Resigned Aug. 14, '63.. 
Discharged June 18, '65 
Resigned Nov. 26, '62.. 
Resigned Jan. 10, '62. . . 
Resigned Dec. 10, '63... 

Died Aug. 8, '64 

Discharged June 7, '65. 
Discharged July 24, '65. 
Died of Wounds, '64... 
Discharged June 19, '63 



18 



MEDICAL 80CIE!TY OP NEW JERSEY. 



ASSISTANT SURGEONS N. J. VOLS.— continued. 



DATK OF 
COMMISSION. 



Samuel H. Jones 

JohnE. Gary 

David G. Hetzell 

Robert W.Elmer 

Alban Williams 

Thomas G. Rowand. . . . 
Robert M. Bateman. . . . 

Seffrine Daily 

Thomas S. Osborne . . . . 

J. Henry Stiger 

Charles H. Suydam 

Benjamin N. Baker 

Joseph F. Berg, jr. . . . 
Judson G. Shackleton.. 

Ezra M. Hunt 

Elijah W. Lawrence . . . 
Alexander Barclay, jr.. 
George E. Summers. . . . 

John T. Lanning 

Joseph S. Cook 

Nathaniel Jennings. . . . 

Williams. Willes 

John L. Krauter 

John R. Todd 

J. Henry Stiger 

Charles W. Stickney . . . 

David G. Hetzell 

Con. C. Badger 

Richard G. Taylor 

John T. Lanning 

Edward H. Reed 

Samuel Woolverton.. . , 
Lawrence O. Morgan. . 
Samuel A. Phillips. . . . 

John Helm 

R. Douglass James . . . . . 

Morton Robinson 

Elwood P. Hancock. - , 

Israel Hart 

William S. Combs 

George W. Douglass. . . 

Harmon Heed 

Elias Wildman 



22d Lif try 
22d " 
23d " 



24th 


u 


24th 


u 


25th 


(k 


25th 


11 


26th 


u 


27th 


u 


27th 


u 


28th 


u 


28th 


u 


29th 


il 


29th 


u 


29th 


u 


30th 


u 


30th 


u 


30th 


It 


3l8t 


it 


31st 


u 


31st 


u 


2d Cavalry 
2d " 


33d Liftry 
33d " 


34th 


u 


34th 


u 


35th 


(( 


35th 


u 


35th 


(C 


35th 


(C 


3d Cavalry. 
3d " 


3d 


it 


3d 


u 


37th 
37th 


Inftry 


38th 


u 


38th 


it 


39th 


u 


40th 


(t 


40th 


c< 



Sept. 17, '62 
Sept. 17, '62 
Sept. 17, '62 
Sept. 19, '62 
Sept. 16, '62 
Sept. 16, '62 
Oct. 15, '62. 
Nov. 1, '62. 
Feb. 18, '63. 
Oct. 9, '62. . 
March 18, '63 
Oct. 2, '62. . . 
Sept. 15, '62. 
Sept. 19, '62. 
Oct. 9, '62... 
June 4, '63. . 
Sept. 15, '62. 
Sept. 19, '62. 
March 18, '63 
Sijpt. 15, '62 
Sept. 15, '62 
March 26, '63 
Feb. 9, '64... 
April 15, '64. 
.July 20, '63.. 
Aug. 3, '63.. 
Oct. 20, '63.. 
June 13, '64, 
Aug. 22, '63. 
Sept. 23, '63. 
July 26, '64.. 
June 8, '65... 
Dec. 18, '63.. 
Feb. 13, '64.. 
Sept. 15, '64. 
Jan. 16, '65.. 
June 23, '64. 
June 23, '64. 
Sept. 22, '64. 
Sept. 23, '64. 
Sept. 24, '64. 
March 2, '65 
March 3, '65. 



Discharged June 25, '63. 
Discharged June 25, '63. 
Discharged June 27, '63. 
Discharged June 27, '63. 
Discharged June 29, '63. 
Discharged June 29, '63. 
Discharged June 20, '63. 
Discharged June 20, '63. 
Discharged April 17, '63. 
Discharged July 2, '63.. . 
Discharged July 2, '63.. . 
Discharged July 6, '63.. . 
Discharged July 6, '63.. . 
Discharged June 30, '63. 

Resigned Jan. 7, '63 

Discharged June 30, '63. 
Resigned March 5, '63. . . 
Discharged June 27, '63. 
Discharged June 27, '63. 

Resigned Jan. 6, '63 

Discharged June 24, '63. 
Discharged June 24, '63. . 
Discharged Nov. 1, '65.. . 
Discharged Nov. 1, '65. . . 
Discharged July 17, '65. . 
Discharged July 17, -65. . 
Discharged April 80, '66. 
Discharged April 30, '66 . 
Resigned March 7, *64.. . 

Resigned July 5, '64 

Resigned March 29, '65. . 
Discharged July 20, '65. . 

Resigned July 28, '64 

Dismissed June 25, '64. . . 
Discharged Aug. 1, '65.. . 
Discharged Aug. 1, '65.. . 
Discharged Oct. 1, '64.. . 
Discharged Oct. 1, '64. . - 
Discharged June 30, '65 . 
Discharged June 30, '65 . 
Discharged June 17, '65 . 
Discharged July 13, '65. . 
Discharged July 17, '65. . 



REPORTS OP COMMITTEES. 19 

REPORT OP THE COMMITTEE ON SANITARY LAWS. 

The Committee appointed at your last meeting to present the 
subject of " Sanitary and Hygienic " interests of the State to Exec- 
utive and Legislative consideration, would respectfully report that 
a letter on the subject was addressed to His Excellency Governor 
Ward, early in February, 1866, whereupon he cordially invited the 
Committee to present the subject before him in person, and invited 
members of both Houses of the Legislature to meet at the Executive 
Chamber and listen to the suggestions of your Committee. The 
result was the appointment of a State Sanitary Commission, who 
were thus enabled oflScially to draw the attention of the State to 
important matters bearing on public hygiene, and to awaken an 
interest in the whole subject. In their report to the Legislature, 
this Commission recommended to the Legislature the passage of a 
general State Health Law, framed in accordance with the most 
approved views on this subject. Although the bill failed of passage, 
it was only lost by a small majority, and your Committee have 
reason to know that the health interests of the State are now re- 
garded as a permanent subject of legislative attention. The present 
Executive showed an intelligent and appreciative interest in all 
suggestions as to sanitary reform, and has the highest statesmanlike 
view of the importance of State action in this regard. It must be 
said, too, of the Legislature, that while there were some illogical 
objections, many of the members took enlarged and correct views 
of the relations of sanitary legislation to the health of the citizens. 
For the first time we believe in our history, there was a Committee 
on Public Health, all of whom showed a lively interest and intelli- 
gent co-operation in the plan suggested. Had the Commission 
been able to suggest a bill early in the session, and to have given 
it the advantage of personal explanation to various members, it 
would no doubt have become a law. While we may honestly differ 
as to minor points in legal sanitary enactment, we believe that the 
medical profession owe it to themselves as philanthropists, no less 



20 MEDICAL SOCIETY OP NEW JE&SEY. 

than as medical men, to take a lively interest in all that relates to 

the public health. 

While we ask no exclusive privileges, and have little confidence 

in any special legislation as to health matters, we believe that the 

physicians of the State have it in their power, by facts and figures, 

so to create public sentiment as to secure some good form of health 

law for the State, at the next meeting of its Legislature. Tour 

Committee considered their duties, as the representatives of the 

Society, to have ended when a Sanitary Commission was* appointed, 

but refer to those facts as having to do with results following the 

appointment of the Committee by this Society. We recommend 

that, in such way as you may deem proper, the attention of the 

State be directed to this matter, and that the Society co-operate in 

every way in their power, with all judicious effort, to secure a more 

widely diffused knowledge of sanitary science and a proper system 

of State enactment. 

E. M. Hunt, 

B. H. Stratton, 

John Woolverton. 






REPORTS OF DELEGATES TO OTHER SOCIETIES. 



BEPOKT OF DELEGATION TO AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION. 

Your delegates to the Amei'ican Medical Association, appointed 
at your last meeting, would respectfully report : That in the per- 
formance of the duties assigned them they attended the meeting 
of said Association at Baltimore, Md., on the first day of May, 
1866. Besides the representatives from this Society, there were 
present from the State of New Jeriey, delegates from the Cumber- 
land County District Society, Essex Medical Society, Hunterdon 
County District Society, and Newark Medical Association, together 
with Drs. John Blane and E. M. Hunt, permanent members. 

The Committee on Credentials reported an attendance of 326 
delegates and permanent members, which number was subsequently 
considerably increased. 

The proceedings were of the most interesting and harmonious 
character ; the discussions on the various subjects brought to the 
attention of the Association, while they were earnest, were 
characterized by that courtesy and gentlemanly bearing, which so 
properly belongs to our noble profession. 

The subject of Asiatic Cholera, and the doctrine of its conta- 
gious character, in view of its then threatening approach, was a 
most interesting and important one, and was fully and fairly 
discussed. The Association refused by a decided vote to commit 
itself to the doctrine of contagion, although strongly urged to do 
so by some of the most eminent men present. 

It is hardly necessary to recapitulate the whole of the proceed- 
ings of the Association, as they have been fully published in the 
17th volume of the Transactions. Your delegates would refer you 



4- 



22 MEDICAL ROCIETY OP NEW JEBSET. 

to the pages of that intereBting book for such further intormation 
as may be desired. 

Dr. H. F. Askew, of Delaware, was elected President of the 
At«sociation lor the ensuing year, and Dr. John Blane was placed 
on the Committee on Necrology, from this State. Cincinnati, Ohio, 
was selected as the place for the meeting in 1867. The imperfec- 
tions of this re{)ort would be greatly increased, did it not 
acknowledge the unbounded iiospitality, kindness and attention, 
with which the members were treated by the medical profession, 
the municipal authorities, and the citizens of Baltimore generally, 
and last though nut Iciist by His Excellency the Governor of 
Maryland, who entertailieu^ the entire Association, together with 
hundreds of their friemls, at the^ il^^ecutive mansion at Annapolis, 
which place was visited by m^ns oilr^teamboat excui-sion, got 
up in the most complete style by our hS^gpitable and generous 
entertainers of Baltimore. \. 

No meeting of the New Jersey Medical Soci^v having been 
held since the meeting of the American Medical iJs^ciation in 

1866, it was presumed that the delegates appointed ftff that year 
would be expected to attend the meeting of the AssofeiatioD in 

1867. Drs. S. S. Clark, Gilbert, and Samuel Lilly, aecoM^ 
attended as delegates from this Society. They were joined b^ 
Isaac S. Cramer of the Hunterdon County District Society, and ^, 
G. Grant of the Newark Medical Association. 



There was a large attendance of delegates and members fro J 
all the Northern and Western States, and a few from the Souther 
States; more of the latter it was said would have been present, bu 
for the want of means to do so. The best of feeling prevailed, the 
discussions, addresses and other proceedings were such as could 
not but make the hearts of all present glad, especially so because 
of the expressions of our Southern brethern, that there never had 
been and never could be any separation between the members of 
our profession ; that while politicians would divide the country by 



k 



^ 



REPORTS OF DELEGATES. 23 

geographical lines, the learned professions, (that of medicine 
particularly) being cosmopolitan could not be divided. 

The opening address of the President was a most interesting 
document, but as a fiill synopsis of its contents has found its way 
in a number of medical, as well as secular journals, to which most 
of you no doubt have had access, it is not necessary for us to 
repeat any here. 

A number of interesting topics were reported upon and discuss- 
ed, which cannot be noticed in the limits of a report like the 
present one. This is the less to be regretted as the transactions 
will soon be published in full and placed within the reach of every 
member of the profession who desires them. 

The most important matter in the opinion of your delegates, 

which was brought forward, was that of medical education. A 

committee was appointed at the meeting ol the Association in 

1866, to call a convention of the medical teachers of the country, 

with a view of establishing an advanced standard of medical 

education. This convention met at Cincinnati the week prior to 

the meeting of the American Medical Association. Twenty-four 

schools and colleges, being a majority of all the medical schools in 

the country, were represented. After mature deliberation and 

discussion a plan for a higher standard of professional education 

ras adopted unanimously. This plan, a copy of which accompanies 

bis report, formed a portion of the report of the Committee on 

fedical Education to the American Medical Association, and was 

tianimously approved by vote of that Association, and the influence 

Bind support of its members pledged to its success. 

The plan embraces a more thorough course of preparatory 
studies than has been heretofore exacted ; an extension of the term 
of medical pupilage to four years ;~three full courses of medical 
lectures of six months each, and a division of the college classes 
into freshmen, juniors * and seniors, with a separate course of 
lectures to each, thus involving the necessity of a considerable 



24 MEDICAL SOCIETY OF NEW JERSEY. 

increase in the number' of the college fiaculties. A separation of 
teaching and licensing was also strongly recommended. 

It is to be regretted that none of the medical schools of the 
cities of New York and Brooklyn were represented in the teachers' 
convention, while those of their sister city of Philadelphia were 
there in full force. The resolution of approval of the plan and 
pledging the support of the American Medical Association and its 
members thereto, was oflFered by Prof. Lewis A. Sayer, M. D., of 
New York. This would seem to imply that the faculties of the 
schools located there, and the members of the profession resident 
in the metropolis, approve the step taken and will give it a hearty 
support. 

Prof. Samuel D. Gross, M. D., of Phila., was elected President 
of the Association for the ensuing year. The member of tlie Com- 
mittee of Necrology from this State (Dr. John Blane) was continued 
on that Committee. 

A very animated discussion arose upon fixing the place for the 
next meeting. New Orleans was named by the Nominating 
Committee. This was opposed on the ground that no invita- 
tion from that city had been extended to the Association to meet 
there, and from the impoverished condition of New Orleans as well 
as of the whole Southern country, it would be ungenerous to 
saddle upon the profession and the citizens an expense they can so 
illy afford. 

Washington City was finally selected as the place for the next 
meeting, and the Committee of Arrangements were instructed to 
decline all invitations either for themselves or the Association for 
fetes, entertainments or excursions, which would interfere with the 
business of the Association. 

It may be well to state here that a custom has grown up, by 
which the meetings of the Association have become a very heavy 
tax on the profession and people of the city where they are held. 
The cost in each of the cities of Baltimore and Cincinnati could 
not have &llen far short of twelve or fifteen thousand dollars. 



BFPOBTS OF DELEGATES. 25 

Tour delegates discussed the question of extending an invita- 
tion to the Association to meet in New Jersey next year, which 
invitation we are convinced would have been gladly accepted, but 
we did not feel at liberty to do so and thus incur an expense 
which, from the paucity of the members of the profession in New 
Jersey, and their limited means, would be more than they could 
well afford. It is hoped however that in the not far distant iuture, 
the feasting, banqueting, excursions, &c., will be dispensed with, 
and the meetings devoted to the business for which they are held, 
and then our glorious little State and the noble band of profes- 
sional brethren, within her borders, will be honored by a meeting 
of our National Asssociation. 

This report, your delegates are fully aware, is a very meagre and 
imperfect one, a mere outline of what transpired ; all however, will 
soon have the opportunity of filling up the picture by a perusal of 
the volume of the transactions soon to be published. 

We cannot close this report without tendering to the profession 
and citizens of Cinncinati our heartfelt and grateful thanks for 
their unbounded hospitality, their untiring efforts and lavish ex- 
penditure of money to make our visit to their Queen City of the West 
most profitable and agreeable ; and to this time-honored institution 
we offer our cordial acknowledgments for the piivilege of attending 
these meetings in a delegated capacity. 
Respectfiilly submitted, 

Samuel Lilly, Chairman. 



Report of DELKOATION^TOfMEDICALfSoCIETY^OF^NEW YOBK. 

We beg leave to report that we attended the annual meeting of 
the Medical Society of the State of New York, held at Albany 
February 6, 1866, and was duly welcomed as one of your repre- 
sentatives. Although able to remain only a single day, we heard 
and saw enough to satisfy us that the well-known reputation of the 
4 



26 MEDICAL SOCIETY OF NEW JERSEY. 

medical profession of New York State was fully sustained in its 
State Society. While it affords an occasion for pleasant social 
reunions, its members are thoroughly devoted to advancing the 
science of our profession, and besides its routine business, a large 
number of scientific and practical papers were offered on the 
various subjects pertaining to the practice of medicine. In this 
respect, they set our own Society an example well worthy of 
imitation. Not less than twenty-five papers were presented. The 
transactions of the Society are published at the expense of the 
State, and are a valuable contribution to medical literature. With 
the earnest hope that both Societies will continue to maintain the 
pleasant correspondence, and not fail to secure the presence of rep- 
resentatives at each annual meeting, we respectfully submit this 

report. 

Ezra M. Hunt. 



Report op Delegation to Connecticut Medical Society, 1806. 

The undersigned, one of the delegates appointed to the meeting 
of the Connecticut Medical Society, for 1866, begs leave to report 
that he attended the seventy-fourth annual meeting of that Society, 
which was held at New Haven on the 23d and 24th of May, 1866. 
Upon presenting his credentials, he was most cordially received by 
the membera of the Society, and invited to participate in the dis- 
cussions. He found there delegates in attendance from the Medical 
Societies of Maine, New Hampshire and New York, who, in common 
with himself, were cordially welcomed to the meeting. After the 
usual preliminary business, and receiving various papers from the 
County Societies, the Society adjourned to meet in the Hall of the 
House of Representatives of the State, where an able and very inter- 
esting address was delivered by Dr. Isaac G. Porter, the President of 
the Society, on the Medico Chirurgical Lessons of the War. This 
address was listened to by a large audience of the profession and 
citizens of New Haven. After the address, the Society were hos- 



REPORTS 0B< DELEGATES. 2T 

pitabiy entertained by the New Haven Medical Association at 
Alumni Hall of Yale College. The next morning was devoted to 
the usual business of the Society, and several valuable papers were 
read, one of which was on the Nebulization of Medicines, for inha- 
lation, by Dr. Ephraim Luther, of Boston, and one on the Prophy- 
laxis of Phthisis, by Dr. C. L. Ives, of New Haven, both of which 
were able and interesting papers, and elicited great commendation 
from the members of the Society. Altogether, the proceedings 
were of great interest. The Connecticut Medical Society, like 
our own, has a charter from the State. Has some privileges from 
the State in the control of the General Hospital of the State, which, 
as appeared by some of the proceedings of the Society, the Homoe- 
pathists and Eclectics were endeavoring to share, by means of leg- 
islative action. Such always will be the case where any power or 
peculiar privileges are dependent on Legislatures, and your dele- 
gate could not help congratulating himself, and our honorable Soci- 
ety, that by the last alteration in our charter, and being organized 
entirely on the voluntary principle, we should hereafter be free from 
legislative interference in managing the affairs of our Society. A 
strong desire was expressed that the correspondence with our Soci- 
iety should still be maintained, and two delegates were appointed 
to be present at our annual meeting to be held at Newark, and we 
would earnestly recommend that delegates should be appointed 
from our Society, to be present at the future meetings of the Con- 
necticut Medical Society. 

Eespectfully submitted, 

RiCH/iRD M. Cooper, M. D., Delep^ate. 



Report of Delegation to Coknecticut Mrdical Society, 1867. 

But for the letter of the law, it seems unnecessary to commit to 
writing a detailed account of the attendance of your delegation at 
the annual session of the Medical Society of Connecticut, on Wed- 



28 MEDICAL SOCIETY OF IfEW JERSEY. 

nesday and Thursday of last week. The meeting was held at 
Hartford, and one delegate from each of the States of Vermont, 
New Hampshire, Massachusetts, New York and New Jersey were 
present, and received a cordial welcome from the members of the 
Society. Besides the routine business, nothing of special interest 
occurred. At the opening, a Committee of Dentists were heard in 
reference to an application made to the authorities of Yale College 
for the establishment of one or more chairs, in connection with the 
Medical Department, on their specialty. The favorable action and 
co-operation of the Society was solicited. The subject was referred 
to a Committee, to report at the next annual meeting. It was said 
that the plan had already been adopted at Cambridge. 

On Wednesday evening, through the liberality of the medical 
gentlemen of Hartford, a public entertainment was given to the 
Society, which in its social and culinary aspect, was very pleasant. 
The President, Dr. Porter, of New London, at this time delivered 
a very interesting address on the Recuperative Powers of Nature 
in the cure of Disease. He laid great stress upon the eflScacy of 
this agent, ,not to the exclusion of drug medication, but as co-ope- 
rative, and contended that his positions were sustained not only by 
theoretical reasons, but by modern practice. 

On the following day. Dr. Hubbard read an essay on a Milk 
Diet, in the treatment of the entire catalogue of diseases, except 
in the case of idiosyncrecies, contending that it contains more of 
the elements necessary for the sustentation of the system in sick- 
ness than any other known aliment, and if given at the commence- 
ment, would supercede the use of alcoholic stimulants, at least its 
very liberal use as practiced by many physicians. He advises 
this diet from the commencement to the termination of the sick- 
ness, in quantity of two ounces three times a day, to two quarts a 
day, according to circumstances. He asserted that in his own 
practice, by an exclusive, persistent use of milk, he had succeeded 
in curing severe chronic diseases, which had refused to yield to 
any other treatment. 



^EPO'RTS of DJiLEGAT^. 29 

1 need ndt add that your delegate did Hat nH^^i id toirge the 
sending of a iiill delegation to this meeting, assu^nga welcome 
reception, and special provision for ^it care and <CMifort during 
the session. 

Wm, Pierson, 
delegate to Medical Society of Connecticut. 



Presidents address. 



Gentlemen of the Medical Society of New Jersey : 

In the good providence of God we are permitted to assemble 
together again, after a protracted interval, growing out of the 
new arrangement entered into at our last meeting ; it is pleasant, 
and I hope it will be profitable to us to renew our fraternal greet- 
ings, and take council together in strengthening and fortifying 
each other in the arduous and responsible profession to which we 
have consecrated our talents and our lives. 

It is, my brethren, a noble profession, second only to that of 
divinity ; the former seeks to mitigate the ills of the body, while 
the latter seeks to implant within the soul the germ of a higher, 
better life, which shall be perpetuated forevermore in the presence 
of all those who have been redeemed, sanctified and saved. 

We enter this day on the first anniversary of a new century of 
our time-honored Society. When we look back, and scan the list 
of those who were associated together in the early part of the or- 
ganization of this Society, we find that they have long slept the 
sleep of death. It is indeed a sad duty to report yearly, here and 
there, some of our number gone, whom we took by the hand with 
cordial greetings at our annual social gatherings. 

It is the province of the Standing Committee to report all such. 
I am not able to say who or how many have fallen since last we 
met ; we may mention, however, that the District Society of Cum- 
berland County sustained the loss of two of its members, Wil- 
liam B. Ewing and Nathaniel R. Newkirk. Both were devoted 
Christian gentlemen, and left the world in the full hope of a bliss- 



I president's address. 31 

I 

I M immortality. You may expect a more extended notice of their 
i lives and character from the proper source. 

Since our gathering to celebrate the centenary of this venerable 

• Society, stupendous results have been achieved. Wars and rumors 

I of wars across the Atlantic ; kingdoms, thrones and empires have 

I been shaken to their very centre ; the oppressed and down-trod- 

! den have been rescued ; religious liberty has been advanced, and 

I its holy precepts have been acknowledged. What a glorious day 

is this in which we live I Every indication points to the oncoming 

of universal liberty, when all the nations of the earth shall dwell 

in peace, when wars, and strife and bloodshed shall no more be 

' known, feared and felt. 

I In our own country prosperity and tranquillity, so much desired 

by every patriot heart, have^ again spread their balmy wings over 
our beloved land, and very much has already been done to exalt 
America in the scale of national greatness, and render brighter 
and fairer her tarnished escutcheon, not the least of which is the 
education and Christian instruction bestowed upon the liberated 
African. It is no longer a problem that he is susceptible of moral 
and religious culture. Many arc destined, no doubt, to fill some 
important position in the regeneration of their race — one of the 
glorious results of our late conflict. 

In this connection, we may notice the princely munificence of 
that great and good man, George Peabody, Esq., who has recently 
sown broadcast millions of his own private fortune for the educa- 
tion of the Southern races, white g,nd black alike, who may be unable 
to assist themselves in whole or in part. Such wondrous liberality 
is without a parallel. In vain shall we search the past or present 
century for a precedent. No man living can compute the glorious 
results which are sure to follow, through time and eternity, such 
noble and disinterested benevolence. This act alone renders the 
name of George Peabody immortal. 

We deem it worthy of mention that every State, Noii;h and 
South, was represented by delegates at the recent meeting of the 



32 MEDICAL aOCIETT OF ITEW JEBSET. 

American Medical Association, held at Cincinnati — a circnmstance 
exceedingly gratifying to every lover of his conntry. 

The signs of the times seem to betoken that the day is hastening 
on apace when the reconstruction of the Southern States will be 
effected on a jnst, permanent and enduring basis. 

Then, again — what a mighty achievement in science. The 
Atbntic cable has been successfully laid, and daily dispatches are 
received every morning trom all parts of Europe, soon to be ex- 
tended over every continent I The name of Cyrus W. Field will Kve 
in history to the end of time. Well might Congress give him a vote 
of thanks in behalf of this great nation. So perfect is the conduct- 
ing power of this cable, that the operator in Newfoundland has sent 
a dispatch to Ireland with a battery of simply a gun cap, with a 
strip of zinc, excited by a drop of water the bulk of a tear. 

But the most wonderful and astonishing thing in connecticm with 
this achievement was the recovery of the cable, lost in mid-ocean 
in the preceding year, which, as Mr. Field well says, was " the 
triumph of the highest nautical and engineering skill.'' Having 
found ike place where the cable parted, he cast over the grapnel, 
but, alas I the ocean was two miles deep, and two Icmg hours were 
required for the grajmel to reach the bottom. The weather was 
very stormy, and the work was tedious. Thirty times did they 
east their line. On the last night of August, a little before mid- 
ni^t, it was secured, and a little after midnight on Sunday mora* 
ing, it was safely on board. He saysy " What was the anxiety of 
those twenty-six hours ? But soon the wind rose, and for tiiirty- 
six hours we were exposed to all the dangers of a storm on tke 
Aflantic. Yet, in the very height and fury of the gale, as I sat in 
the electrician's room, a flash of light, came up from ttie deep, which 
having crossed to Ireland, came back to me in mid-ocean, telling 
titat those so dear to me, whom I had left on tib.e banks of the Hud- 
son, were well, and following us with their wishes and their pray- 
ers. This was bke a whiter of God from tiie sea, bidding me 
keep heart sad hope.'' 



pbesident's address. 33 

The science of medicine, since the days of Galen to the present 
time, has been progressive. With astonishing results new remedial 
agents are constantly being discovered, tending to assuage the pain 
and sufferings of the human race, thus prolonging life and render- 
ing it more desirable and pleasant. 

Surgery has made rapid advances. The use of chloroform and 
ether in operatic surgery is a boon to the sufferer too precious to be 
dispensed with. 

The practitioner of to-day has much more abundant material 
wherewith to combat disease than those of the last century, or 
even twenty years ago. The animal, mineral and vegetable king- 
doms have of late greatly enriched the materia medica ; perhaps 
none more so than the latter. " It is more than probable," says 
the late Professor Chapman, ** that on some of the Alpine heights, 
or along the margin of those bold streams which pervade our wide- 
spread continent, there blooms many a plant whose virtues, now 
flung on the * desert air,' may be peculiarly adapted to the gigantic 
forms of disease, and capable of reducing the lengthened catalogue 
of the opprobia medicarum." 

EPIDEMIC CHOLERA. 

I have chosen, gentlemen. Epidemic Cholera as the subject of my 
address to-day, and I invite to its consideration your careful and 
undivided attention. I need hardly say that my mind has been 
drawn to this subject on account of its reappearance in this country 
during the past year, and its probable recurrence again this year. 
And indeed, while this address ia being written, this disease has 
already recommenced its fearful march. During the past month 
(April) several fatal cases have been reported as occurring in 
Louisiana, which has extended into Arkansas, among the freedmen, 
with great mortality. At the present time, however, the disease 
has materially abated. One or more cases have been reported in 
St. Louis and Chicago. It would not be surprising if, during the 
5 



a4 MEDICAL SOCIETY OP NEW JERSEY. 

summer approaching, it shonid be very destructive in its course 
through the valley of the Mississippi, on account of the submerged 
condition of the lowlands bordering on that magnificent river. 

" This disease appears,'' says Professor Wood, " to have been 
long known in India, but it first began to attract the attention of 
the medical profession in the year 1817, when it broke out as an 
epidemic, with great violence, in Bengal, and from that province, 
as a centre, commenced the fearful march, which did not cease until 
it had encircled the globe." 

At a medical conference, composed of eminent men of the differ- 
ent European countries, recently held at Constantinople, it was as- 
certained that the birth-place and permanent seat of the cholera is 
in a district in the valley of the Ganges, in India, and that it is 
wholly transmitted by man himself. It was proposed that barriers 
should be raised against its fresh importation from the East, and 
that it should be attacked in the district where it is permanently 
settled. 

Its first appearance in this country was in 1832, brought from 
Paris and London. Overleaping the barrier of the Atlantic, it ap- 
peared in Quebec on the 8th of June, and at Montreal on the 10th, 
and thence pursued a rapid course along the St. Lawrence and the 
lakes to the valley of the Mississippi river. A detachment from 
the main line of invasion, as it crossed the Atlantic, appears to 
have struck the shores of the United States at New York, where 
the disease broke out on the 24th of June. Thence it spread 
northwardly up the Hudson, and southwardly to the Delaware and 
Chesapeake Bay, reaching Albany on the 3d or 4th, and Philadel- 
phia on the 5th of July, and Baltimore in the course of the same 
month ; and so continued on its course, invading Charleston, Ha- 
vana in Cuba, and Mexico, where it committed great ravages in 
1833. 

In 1849 it again visited this country, being brought across the 
Atlantic in a ship with emigrants, which sailed on the 9th of No- 
v^hber, 1848, from Havre for New York. 



president's ADDBlaSS. 85 

At the time of the departure of the ship there was no cholera 
either in that port or at Paris, and the crew and passengers were 
all healthy. The vessel had been sixteen days at sea when the 
cholera appeared on board, and she arrived with it iat the quaran- 
tine ground at Staten Island on the 1st of December. The passen- 
gers were landed, and very soon afterwards the disease broke out 
in the neighborhood. It did not, however, extend beyond the 
quarantine enclosure, and ceased entirely about the beginning of 
the new year. 

Another ship sailed from the same port and brought the disease 
to New Orleans, while stUl another conveyed it to New York 
about the close of May, 1849. ' In the summer of 1850, and in al- 
most every year since that time, it has occurred to a greater or 
less extent in various parts of the valley of the Mississippi. 

In the early part of the summer of 1866 it was again brought to 
this country in a ship from Liverpool containing emigrants. The 
crew and passengers embarked healthy, but on the passage, after 
being at sea several days, the cholera broke out, causing several 
deaths, and so continued to prevail when she arrived at quarantine 
in New York Bay, in the month of June. Here the affected were 
transferred to a Hospital Ship for treatment, and hopes were en- 
tertained that it might be conj&ned to this locality ; but not long 
after it appeared in the city of New York, from which point it 
spread to other cities, towns and villages, Philadelphia, Cincinnati, 
St. Louis, &c., but in no place was its invasion more protracted 
and serious than at Cincinnati, where it was marked with great 
mortality. 

On the line of railroads in this State it invaded various sections. 
The report of the Sanitary Commission says : " It visited Hudson 
City, Hoboken, Burlington and Camden, where it prevailed most 
severely, while several other places in lines of public travel num- 
bered from one to fifteen cases. Over two hundred cases were 
fatal. In nearly all cases it was directly traceable to some nest- 
ling point in New York or Philadelphia ; and in many instances 



36 MEDICAL SOCIETY OF NEW JERSEY*. 

the first case in a town would be in the person of a stranger or 
visitor recently arrived from one of these cities. The portability 
of the disease is fully established, yet we are not prepared to say 
that it is always and only thus propagated." 

From the brief account of the cholera here considered, it will 
be seen that its march is extremely irregular ; sometimes it ad- 
vances with great rapidity, sometimes slowly, and sometimes pauses 
for a longer or a shorter period, giving hopes to the yet unvisited 
countries that they may yet escape its ravages. 

In general its progress is arrested during the winter, to be re- 
sumed in the spring, though this is not invariably the case, for at 
Moscow it prevailed through most of the winter of 1830 and 1831, 
and the cold weather did not prevent its spreading along the Mis- 
sissippi in the winter of 1848-49. Though preferably following 
the course of streams, afiecting low and damp places, and attacking 
the filthy and crowded portions of populous cities, it is yet abso- 
lutely confined to no particular character of locality, but shows it- 
self occasionally upon lofty mountains, in the midst of sandy des- 
erts, and among the scattered inhabitants of thinly peopled agri- 
cultural districts. 

No barriers have yet been found suflScient to obstruct its pro- 
gress. It crosses mountains, deserts and oceans. Opposing winds 
do not check it. All classes of persons, male and female, young 
and old, the robust and the feeble, are exposed to its assaults, and 
even those whom it has once visited are not always subsequently 
exempt, yet, as a general rule, it selects its victims from among 
those already depressed with the various ills of life. The 
period of its duration in any one spot is generally from one to two 
or three months, though this is much influenced by the season, 
being shorter, for the most part, when winter is near. When it 
prevails in the same place more than once, it usually afiects fewer 
persons, and is of a milder character in the second attack than in 
the first, though there may be some exceptions. 

The first approach of the epidemic influence, in places about to 



president's address. 37 

become the seat of cholera, is usually felt in the more or less gen- 
eral prevalence of moderate disorders of the stomach and bowels, 
which precede, for a short time, the appearance of the disease, and 
continue, in various degrees, to aflFect a large portion of the popula- 
tion. After it has become established, sometimes there is only a 
slight derangement of digestion, or a simple diarrhoea or mild dys- 
entery, but very frequently the premonitory affection takes on a 
more decided character, and, without amounting absolutely to choU 
era, approaches it more or less nearly. From this circumstance it 
has received the name of Cholerine, adopted from the French 
writers. 

When the epidemic influence has attained an intensity adequate 
to the production of the full formed disease, a few cases are first 
observed, usually among the lowest order of the community. These 
are soon followed by others, and the numbers gradually increase 
until the pestilence reaches its acme, when it speedily subsides, 
and ultimately disappears, leaving behind it, for a short time, that 
same tendency to bowel complaints which had heralded its ap- 
proach. 

The attack often occurs after some imprudence in diet or expo- 
sure, but often also without any obvious exciting cause, and, ac- 
cording to some writers, most frequently in the night. It occa- 
sionally comes on with loss of appetite, pain in the back and abdo- 
men, vertigo, noise in the ears, disordered vision, feebleness of the 
pulse, paleness of the face, copious sweats, a feeling of general 
weakness, and sometimes rigors. In the midst of these or similar 
symptoms, in most cases after a longer or shorter duration of di- 
arrhoea or cholerine, but sometimes without any premonition what- 
ever, the patient is seized with vomiting and purging, which are 
frequently repeated, and attended with severe pain in the abdo- 
men, neuralgic pains in different parts of the body, and cramps of 
the voluntary muscles, especially those of the lower extremities. 
The first evacuations in cases not originating in diarrhoea or chol- 
erine, consist of the ordinary contents of the stomach and bowels, 



S8 MEDICAL SOCIETY OF NEW JERSEY. 

bnt the dejections which follow are of a whitish color, tiiin and 
watery, resembling rennet whey, thin gruel or rice water. In 
mild cases, or after the subsidence of the severer sjmptoms, they 
are sometimes tinged with bile, and a little blood is occasionally 
discharged. The matter vomited is generally similar to the stools. 
The evacuations are usually forcibly ejected, but without apparent 
straining or much voluntary eflFort, and are often very copious. 

The cramps usually begin in the extremities, affecting especially 
the calves of the legs, but subsequently extend to muscles of the 
trunk and abdomen. They are excruciatii^ly painful and almost 
incessant, sometimes distorting the fingers and toes in various di- 
rections, according to the particular muscle or muscles affected. 

At the same time the pulse sinks rapidly, the extremities become 
cold, the features shrink, the patient is restless, and complains of 
intense thirst ; the whole surface is bathed with sweat, the urine is 
scanty, and the skin begins to assume a bluish, leaden or violet 
color, which extends more or less over the body, but is peculiarly 
striking in the face, hands and feet. If the complaint is not ar- 
rested the evacuations become still more copious and watery, the 
thirst insatiable, with a burning heat at the epigastrium, the pulse 
frequent, feeble, and sometimes scarcely perceptible : the breath 
cool, the tongue cold and pale, though still moist, the skin unusu- 
ally cold, shrunken and inelastic, so that when pinched into folds it 
does not resume its former state ; the hands and feet shriveled 
and wrinkled, as if long soaked in water, and of a dark purplish or 
livid color, especially at the nails, which are sometimes almost 
black ; the eyes deeply sunk in their sockets and surrounded with 
a livid circle, the nose and lips blue ; the secretion of urine and 
tears suppressed, the respiration short, hurried and oppressed, and 
every symptom indicative of extreme prostration. 

With all these changes the external sensibility often remains acute, 
so that mustard plasters and other irritants produce severe pain ; and 
though cold to the touch the patient frequently complains of a dis- 
tressing heat over the whole surface. The intellect is generally 



president's address. 39 

sound, but more or less obtuse, and in all his moral relations the 
patient evinces an extraordinary apathy, being insensible alike to 
his own danger and prospects, and to the feelings of those con- 
nected with him. 

Bnt, a step farther and the pulse becomes quite imperceptible, a 
feeble movement only of the heart is discoverable, the features and 
whole body are so shrunken that the patient can scarcely be recog- 
nized by his friends, the bluish or purplish color often pervades 
the whole surface ; the voice is feeble or quite extinct, the breath 
almost as cold as the external air, the respiration either hurried 
and feeble, or very slow and scarcely perceptible ; the countenance 
calm or* quite inexpressive, and the whole aspect of the patient 
that of utter helplessness. 

Intelligence is sometimes retained till within a few moments of 
the close of life ; in other cases a period of stupor precedes death. 
The fatal issue sometimes occurs in ibur or five hours from the 
commencement of the attack, though more frequently life is pro- 
tracted for one, two or three days. 

The course of the symptoms in cholera is not always uniform ; 
sometimes the spasms are comparatively trifling or altogether ab- 
sent, sometimes they constitute the chief feature of the case, to the 
exclusion of the ordinary evacuations. Cases have been frequently 
observed in which fatal collapse supervened without vomiting, and 
others are on record in which there was neither vomiting nor di- 
arrhoea. The bluish aspect of the surface, so characteristic of chol- 
era, is not present in all cases, not even in all those which end fa- 
tally. 

Cholera,- running through a regular course, often exhibits four 
distinct stages. The first is the forming stage, consisting of a sim- 
ple diarrhoea. The second is that in which the symptoms of cholera 
are decided, but the system has not sunk into complete prostration, 
and the circulation is distinctly observable both in the larger ves- 
sels and capillaries. The third is the stage of collapse. The fourth 
is that of reaction. All these stages do not by any means occur in 



40 MEDICAL SOCIETY OF NEW JERSEY. 

all cases. The disease is often arrested in the first or second stage, 
or proves fatal in the third, without ever reaching the fourth ; and 
sometimes the second or even the third stage comes on without the 
known existence of those ordinarily preceding it. 

The predisposing causes are many. Whatever is calculated to 
diminish the vital energies, or to reduce the vital actions below the 
standard of health, may be ranked among these causes. Not only 
are debilitated iiidivHlual^^ in greater danger, when laboring under 
the dis^easoT they a re alt?o much more liable to its attacks. Previous 
dtsenj^e^ old age, iuteniperance, vicious indulgences of all kinds cal- 
culated to impair the health, deficient alimentation, an excessive or 
C'xchmve vegetable diet, confined air, especially in low and damp 
places, the effluvia r>f crowded residences, continued grief, fear, 
anxiety, and other depressing emotions, often bring on an attack; 
one of the mo&t common exciting causes is a sudden exposure to 
cold when the body \^ warm and perspiring. 

Surgeon General Eaiiios, in whose charge the safety and health 
of the army m reposed, has deemed it to be proper to issue a circu- 
lar to the Medical Corps and commanders of troops, setting forth 
the measures that should be adopted to prevent the contagion spread- 
ing among tlie soldiorn of the army, and suggesting such means of 
prevention m will give to each man something like surety in his 
person of an escape from an attack, provided he conducts himself 
witli prudence, adherer to cleanliness, and avoids all excesses. 
The use of water BtT-on^ly impregnated with decaying vegetable 
eabBtanccs, is no doubt a very frequent cause of cholera ; and in 
relation to that matter, Surgeon General Barnes gives very minute 
di recti ons, which, if followed, will be beneficial to officers and men, 
as well m to the masses in general. 

When the disease was, in 1832, desolating various sections of 
the United Sta,tes, it sou^lit out the intemperate and those living 
in filth and poycrty, in preference to all other classes. It was 
chiefly confined to such, tliough there were exceptions. Some of 
the honored sons of our State fell victims to its attack ; among the 



41 

number was Chief Justice Ewing, of Trenton, a man truly endeared 
to the hearts of those that knew him. 

Prognosis. Treated in the forming stage, while yet in the state 
of diarrhoea, or cholerine, the disease can almost always be ar- 
rested. Even when completely formed, if not advanced to the 
stage of collapse, it terminates favorably under appropriate man- 
agement in a majority of cases. But in the collapsed state, with 
fluttering or absent pulse, the cold and leaden surface, the sus- 
pended capillary circulation, the shrunken and impressive features, 
and complete mental apathy, the patient is already in the grasp of 
death, and medicine can be of little avail. Very few rise out of 
this condition, when completely formed, and the danger is in pro- 
portion to the degree in which it is approached. Prom the rapid- 
ity of the disease and the destitute state of many of those most ex- 
posed to it, the patient is very often reduced to this condition of 
collapse before medical aid can be obtained. Hence the great mor- 
tality of this fearful disease. 

In forming an estimate of the probable result in any particular 
case, we are to consider the following circumstances : In the early 
stages, before the symptoms of collapse have come on, in a young 
or middle aged, previously healthy and robust individual, and es- 
pecially if the case occurs in the decline or towards the close of 
the epidemic, a favorable termination may be reasonably expected. 

When the attack is violent, at the commencement of the epidemic, 
in an individual more than fifty years old, or previously much de- 
bilitated from any cause whatever, the most serious consequences 
may be apprehended. Dryness of the cornea, ecchymosis of the 
conjunctiva, and perfect stasis of blood in the capillaries, as indi- 
cated by the want of any change of color in the gums or inner sur- 
face of the lips upon pressure with the finger, are certain signs of 
approaching death. 

We notice in the report of Dr. Blane, of Hunterdon, as published 
in the Transactions of this Society for the past year, he says, that 
last year, 1865, we have again intermittents, just as we had them 



42 MEDICAL SOCIETY OP NEW JEBSEY. 

ia 1831, and this is the case with some (and perhaps all) of my 
neighboring practitioners, and the cholera is approaching as it did 
then. These may be accidental coincidences, but they seem to 
argue that there is some change that precedes it and renders the 
system more susceptible to its attacks. In the years 1849, 1854 
and 1858, Dr. Blane does not remember whether intermittents pre- 
ceded the cholera then or not. My own recollection, fortified by 
a record kept, is, substantially, that intermittents have always, 
thus far, preceded the advent of cholera in this country. 

Before entering upon the treatment of this disease, we will notice 
briefly its advent and some of its features, as it occurred in Cedar- 
ville, and in my practice. 

The season opened in Juno with dysentery, with choleratic ten- 
dency, exceedingly difficult to manage, and much more protracted 
than usual. The usual purgatives seemed to be inadmissible, it 
being necessary to feel our way with caution in the treatment of 
this painful disease, but in every instance cure was eifected. 

In the treatment of this disease it had been our purpose and inten- 
tion to have experimented on the plan pursued in Calcutta, in India, 
as reported by Dr. Samuel Lilly, but owing to choleratic influences 
it was not deemed prudent. He says that he had the disease there 
in 1862, took calomel and Dover's powders, followed by ol.Ricini, 
with some relief, but disease continued, with rapid failing strength* 
He then called in Dr. Archer, an eminent physician and surgeon, 
who immediately prescribed pulv. Ipecac in 20 grain doses, re- 
peated once in four hours. He took four doses, and had no more 
dysentery. No nausea followed the administration of the medicine, 
but profuse bilious discharges from the bowels were produced, 
which completely broke up the disease. A mild tonic treatment 
subsequently restored him to former health. Small doses are re- 
garded as worse than useless. 

Following this (dysentery) was cholera morbus and infantum, 
which yielded to treatment. About the middle of July a genuine 
ease of cholera occurred, very severe, which proved fisital. Several 



pbesident's address. 43 

weeks iateirened when another case occurred, (about the middle 
of September) &tal. During the remainder of the month several 
other cases, two bial and six recovered. The nsoal marks were 
very distinct, &c. In all ten cases, foor fatal and six successfhllj 
treated. 

An of these cases were men engaged in catching ojsteis in 
Manrice River Cove for the Riiladelphia market, and in visiting 
that city with their sloops contracted the disease, and returned 
home with it. Some of them were men of Ssunilies ; all of the &tal 
cases were such, but the disease was communicated to only one 
member of their households ; in this family were four cases, all of 
whom recovered. 

There was one symptom present in every case that we do not 
remember to have noticed in 1832 and 1854, which was a sense of 
coldness in the region of the stomach, which was somewhat difficult 
to remove, but, if not too protracted in its removal, was considered 
fevorable. Another feature was, that some five or six hours before 
dissolution the patients became totally comatose, and so continued 
tiU death closed the scene. In the years 1832 and 1854 it was 
not so— perfect consciousness and ability to articulate continued up 
to almost the very period of death. 

Treatment. The plans of treatment which have been employed 
in epidemic cholera, were, in 1832, almost as numerous as the com- 
binations of which remedies are susceptible. It was also a good 
deal so in 1854, one practitioner adopting one mode, and another 
quite the reverse. 

In deciding, therefore, for himself, the physician is necessarily 
oflF the ground of general experience, upon that of principle, and 
his own individual observation. We shall, then, give a sketch of 
the plan of treatment suggested by a judgment formed upon this 
basis. 

The eflForts of the practitioner should be directed to the correc- 
tion or removal of obvious disorders of the functions, and thus to 
put the system as nearly as possible ruto its normal condition. 



44 MEDICAL SOClBTf OP NEW JEBSEff . 

The indications of treatment in the first and second stages of 
the disease are, to arrest the evacuations from the stomach 
and bowelsf to reKeve irritation of the gastro-intestinal mucous 
membrane, to restore the suspended secretions, especially that of 
the liver, to equalize the circulation, to relieve the nervous dis- 
turbance, and to support, when necessary, the general strength ; of 
these the most important is to arrest the alvine evacuations, for it 
is by their continuance and increase that the fatal condition of 
collapse is generally induced. 

Among the remedies best calculated to meet the indications al- 
luded to, the following course of treatment is recommended as the 
most reliable. As soon as possible sinapisms of mustard should be 
applied to the region of the stomach and superior and inferior ex- 
tremities, and the following preparation given, viz. : 
Tine. Opii. 5 ss. 

" Camphor 5 ss. 
" Capsicum § ss. 
Sp. Lavd. Comp'd 5 ss. aa 

Dose, a tea spoonful, in a little water and sugar, to allay vomiting 
and control the diarrhoea, and impart warmth to the stomach and 
promote general circulation. If, as is sometimes the case, the first 
and second doses are rejected, the medicine must be immediately 
and persistently repeated until retained, which is usually effected 
after the second or third time. This formula has been used in 
New Orleans and other sections of our country with evident satis- 
faction. Calomel and opium are then to be introduced. Some 
writers recommend those articles in small doses, while others as- 
sert that in large and liberal doses is our only safety. 

It has been our experience that, to make a speedy impression on 
the functions of the liver, of which the life of the patient mainly 
depends, it is necessary to commence with 8 or 10 grains of calo- 
mel with J to g grain of opium. The tincture above alluded to, 
and the calomel and opium should be given alternately every half 
hour, the latter in smaller doses, from 1 to 3 grains calomel and 



PB£siDem:'s ad:dr£s& 45 

I to J grain of opium. As soon as the diarrhoea is checked and the 
cramps have ceased, the tincture is laid aside, while the other is 
continued hourly until the secretions of the liver are, found to act, 
and bile in the discharges is discovered ; it is then discontinued. 

The treatment here indicated is only for the most violent and 
rapid cases ; milder cases of course require smaller doses of calo- 
mel and opium. 

We consider the treatment, as here recommended, the sheet 
anchor of our hopes. If the liver especially is not brought into 
action during the second stage, there is very little hope of suc- 
ceeding in the third, or stage of collapse. 

A bold and energetic treatment must be pursued or we lose our 
patients. Indeed we are often called in sorrow to give up our 
friends to the fell destroyer, after we have exhausted our skill and 
devoted attention. 

Some authors recommend, in case the discharges are copious, the 
addition of acetate of lead in conjunction with calomel and opium, 
from J to 2 grains, and in addition, if this should prove insufficient, 
with tannic acid, kino, catechu, or the extract of rhatany. We have 
no doubt of the wisdom of the suggestion, but at the same time 
consider those articles greatly inferior to the recipe above alluded 
to. Its eflFects on the system are threefold : 1st, to arrest vom- 
iting and diarrhoea ; 2d, to relieve the distressing cramps ; and 3d, 
to promote general circulation — thus prolonging the duration of 
the second stage, giving more time for the mercurial influence to 
act on the suspended functions of the liver. 

During the administration of the above remedies, the patient 
may be allowed to swallow frequently very small quantities of 
cold carbonic acid water, which tends at the same time to relieve 
the burning thirst and allay the vomiting. A little very cold 
water every now and then, or small pieces of ice, will be found 
very grateful to the patient. In cases requiring stimulation the 
aromatic spirit of ammonia has been recommended as an admirable 
and beneficial prescription. 



46 MEDICAL SOCIETY OP NEW JERSEY. 

Prostration must be obviated by the diflFusible stimulants, espe- 
cially in intemperate persons, though little good can be expected 
from these remedies in the state of collapse. Tincture of camphor, 
aromatic spirits of ammonia, and the ethereal preparations are re- 
commended as among the best; sound port wine or brandy diluted 
with cold water, may also be used. 

It has not escaped our notice, that blood-letting has its advo- 
cates in this disease, some contending that great success has fol- 
lowed its use. To be of any utility the lancet should be used in 
the first or second stage ; in the third stage it is wholly inadmis- 
sable — blood cannot then be drawn. 

In the stage of collapse, the excessive sweats would seem to in- 
dicate a more liberal use of stimulants, but experience has shown 
that little benefit has resulted from their increased use ; indeed it 
would seem that instead of restraining they increase those exhaust- 
ing sweats, thereby diminishing the little remaining excitabQity of 
the system. 

Some writers advise bathing the surfece with astringent solu- 
tions, as of alum with brandy, to close the cutaneous exhalent ori- 
fices, thus checking the sweats. 

Also Cayenne pepper and brandy, oil of turpentine, tincture of 
camphor, liniment of ammonia, &c., applied over the surface of the 
body, are calculated to excite the surface, also friction with flesh 
brush or the hand, may be advantageous. The stimulants, how- 
ever, already mentioned, may be used in small and repeated doses, 
if believed to be productive of no bad efiects. 

Should the stomach and bowels still be unrestrained, our efforts 
should not cease in that direction. We should never give up or 
abandon our patients while life continues. Sometimes, when all 
hope has nearly or quite fled, unexpectedly reaction takes place ; 
the patient, instead of sinking, gradually improves, and hope again 
inspires the breast of the physician and friends that life may pos- 
sibly be prolonged, and the sufferer restored to his family, kindred 
and friends. 



pbbsident's addbbss. 47 

In this stage of cholera the injection of warm water into the 
veins has been resorted to with success. In a paper read by 
Mi Lorain, at a recent meeting of the Academic dcs Sciences, he 
gave an interesting account of a case of cholera, in which he had 
injected water into the veins with success, after all the physicians 
who saw the patient had pronounced him in the most hopeless 
state. The patient was of robust constitution, and was brought 
into St. Antoine on September 29th, at 8 in the morning, having 
had twelve rice water stools and vomiting the night before. On 
admission he presented all the symptoms of the first stage of algide 
cholera — cramps, chills, cyanosis, total suppression of urine, loss 
of voice, absence of pulse, excessive dyspnaea, and extreme pros- 
tration. By the evening everything had become worse. He could 
neither move nor speak, and the pupils ceased contracting to the 
presence of light. He was, in fact, quite insensible, and when 
lifted on the bed, for the purpose of making the injection, he ex- 
actly resembled a corpse. The dissection necessary to expose the 
vein was quite unperceived by him. By means of a glass pump 
foirr hundred grammes of water, at 40 deg. C. were injected at 5.30 
P. M. The first result perceived was a little stronger pulsation 
of the heart, although the pulse at the wrist was as yet impercept- 
ible. The next result was, that the respiration became deeper 
and less oppressed ; and the third was an elevation of temperature. 
A thermometer kept in the mouth indicated, before the operation, 
26.8' deg., and ten minutes after its performance it had risen to 30 
deg. Lastly, immediately after the operation the patient com- 
plained, with a feeble voice, that he was thirsty. At 8 o'clock he 
was asleep, breathing quietly, the skin being moist and recovering 
its warmth. At 11 o'clock the thermometer indicated 34.8 deg., 
the patient having then become restless and vomited abundantly. 
By the morning of the 30th, he was able to rise and sit in a chair ; 
the pulse still, however, remaining insensible, and no urine having 
re-appeared. The patient continued to improve, and on the 2d 
day of October he passed urine. He left the hospital on the 8th 



48 MEDICAL SOCIETY OP NEW JERSEY. 

of October quite convalescent, and eventually entirely recovered. 
Med, News Sr Lih,^ January^ 1867. 

This is certainly a very remarkable case, the patient having run 
down to the very terminus of life, and apparently just about to 
step into the stream, 

" The narrow stream of death," 

When he was unconsciously wooed back again to life, through the 
agency of the Divine hand guiding and directing human instru- 
mentality. Who would say that others might have been thus 
rescued from the very portals of death ? 

The rationale of this treatment is not obscure. The blood hav- 
ing become congealed by coldness of the system, the injection of 
warm water, rendering it more fluid, it was enabled to circulate 
again, thus gradually imparting warmth and relieving the heart 
from threatened suffocation. 

When reaction is established the treatment must be made to 
conform to the variable morbid conditions pj-esented, and must be 
guided by the general principles applicable to other affections ; that 
is to say, apply proper remedies daily to existing circumstances. 

The diet is very important. In the preliminary stages, crackers, 
boiled rice, milk, and light broths may be employed. When the 
disease is established, the diet should consist of mucilaginous and 
farinacious liquids, or very weak chicken or mutton water. Milk, 
in very small quantities, with lime water, sometimes proves both 
useful as food and medicine. 

Much may be done to prevent the disease, or render the attack 
of it milder, as, 1st. Bj general cleanliness, the free use of carbon- 
ate of lime in and about our dwellings, the removal of all garbage 
and decomposing vegetable matter. 2d. The diet should be such 
as to preserve the digestive organs and the general system in the 
soundest possible state, so that they may be neither over-stimulated 
nor depressed. It should consist of a mixture of vegetable and 
animal food, thus obviating costiveness and the necessity for 



president's address. 49 

the use of cathartic medicines. Habits of temperance both in eat- 
ing and drinking are all-important. 

It is nevertheless true, that sometimes the most prudent and 
careful are stricken down, while the intemperate and imprudent 
are spared. This was true of those who were attacked in the city 
of Bridgeton last year, as well as those in Cedarville. Some of 
the best citizens fell victims as speedily as did those in former 
years who were not temperate either in eating or drinking. Thus 
showing that no position in life is secure from its deadly attacks. 

But we do not hold, neither do we believe, that such are as lia- 
ble to be attacked with the disease, as those are who are addicted 
to the intemperate use of intoxicating liquors, and imprudence in 
diet, and other demoralizing practices. It Is true that there are 
exceptions to all general rules. 

But it may be regarded as a matter of history, that the particu- 
lar class of people in any community, most liable to an attack of 
cholera, are those of intemperate and immoral habits, whose con- 
stitutions have been impaired by pernicious indulgences. 

Hence it is of vital importance, that the use of intoxicating 
liquors, should as a beverage be discarded, and its prescription by 
medical men be discontinued, and only recommended as a dernier 
resort. 

Thoughtful men are seeing with alarm the evident increase of in* 
temperance, and of drinking habits in our country, particularly 
among the young. Not the least painful consideration connected 
with this fact is, that in the case of a large and growing number 
of both sexes, the appetite has been awakened and the habits 
formed from following medical prescriptions. 

It is within the observation of all, that physicians more 
generally prescribe intoxicating liquors, particularly Bourbon 
whiskey, than formerly ; but experience shows the danger of tam- 
pering with the poison. The motive for using it may be the best 
possible, but the eflFect is nevertheless unchanged, as multitudes of 
suffering familes are experiencing to their sorrow. 



60 MEDICAL SOCIETY OF NEW JERSEY. 

A prominent advocate for temperance and an eloquent preacher, 
has recently uttered this plain and timely word of warning: " I am 
aware," says he, " that a great change has come over medical men of 
late years, upon the subject of whiskey and whiskey drinking. It 
is not my purpose to undervalue their opinions, but I know that 
Bourbon whiskey is now prescribed a hundred times, where it 
used to be once. There are exceptions among our physicians — 
and I have in my mind physicians who seem to be growing more 
and more cautious about such prescriptions — but it seems to me 
that many physicians scarcely have any deep moral meditation 
upon their course. ; 

" 1 am shocked to find," he says, " as I often do, how many men, 
how many young merfj have had medical prescriptions of Bour- 
bon whiskey given them. And more than that, unless I have 
been misinformed, there is a great deal more clerical drinking for 
medical reasons than there used to be. I have known a great 
many clergymen that were feeble in health and of poor digestion, 
and restless, after the taxation of their nervous systems, at night, 
and could get no sleep, for whom their physicians prescribed Bour- 
bon whiskey ; and in time they became very faint-hearted temper- 
ance men. I most earnestly call the attention of physicians to the 
ill effects that are rising under the peculiar circumstances in which 
we are placed for the authorization which they give for this per- 
nicious practice." Amer, Miss., January, 1867. 

Would that all the respectable physicians of our country would 
heed it. 

And now, gentlemen, in conclusion, I thank you for your kind 
and respectful attention. I have addressed you upon this trite 
subject to-day, because I feel that it is one in which we all have 
been and still are deeply interested. My object has not been to 
present anything new for your consideration, but rather to rehearse 
those things which have been -tried and proven in the treatment 
of this terrible malady. ** Prove all things, hold fast that which 
is good." 



51 

Gentlemen of the Medical Society of New Jersey, may a kind 
Providence shower, upon you all His choicest benedictions, 
strengthen you for the discharge of the arduous duties of your 
profession, and vouchsafe unto you a saving knowledge of Himself, 
so that when your sun of life is setting, and 

" thy summons comes to join 

The innumerable caravan, that moves 
To that mysterious reahn, when each shall take 
His chamber in the silent halls of death. 
Thou go not, like the quarry slave at night. 
Scourged to his dungeon ; but sustained and soothed 
By an unfaltering trust, approach thy grave, 
Like one that draws the drapery of his couch 
About him, and lies down to pleasant dreams/' 



THROMBOSIS. 



BY J. V. SCHENCK, M. D., CAMDEN. 



The experience of the profession is limited in cases of Throm- 
bosis. But few have ventm-ed to narrate the history of those that 
have occurred to them. The issue has been, no doubt, in the ma- 
jority of cases, fatal, and the diagnosis so obscure, that but little 
incentive is given to their publication. Prof. Charles D. Meigs 
mentions the occurrence of thrombosis in parturient women, and 
speaks of that condition as the most favorable for its appearance, 
especially when attended with copious hemorrhage. Dr. Forsyth 
Meigs has published a f ery interesting list of cases of thrombosis 
occurring in diptheritic disease. These cases are interesting, and 
add much light to a subject so little described. 

The victim, in the instance I have to relate, added intensity to 
the gloomy import of this mode of death's doings ; she adorned the 
circle of which she was a member, and her household has lost its 
particular treasure. 

The patient alluded to was delivered of a healthy and well-de- 
veloped female child on Tuesday, the 5th of February last, at 9 
o'clock, A. M. The labor was short and without complication. 
She had, previous to her confinement, enjoyed moderately fair 
health, but was easily prostrated by physical exertion. For some 
years prier to her death she suflFered somewhat from a bronchial 
irritation. The patient continued to do well for four days follow- 
ing her confinement. She complained of some debility, but not of 
an unusual extent ; no secretion of milk in the mammoe occurred. 
In her previous confinement she had sufiiered from painful mam- 



THBOMBOBIS. 53 

mary abscesses ; the apprehension of their recurrence induced her, 
without professional advice, to use a variety of applications to ar- 
rest the secretion in those glands. The lochia was abundant. 
The indications were all propitious until Saturday, the 9 th of Feb- 
ruary, at 5 o'clock, A. M., when I was called in haste to see her. 
I learned that after complaining of a sense of chilliness in the 
extremities, she was seized with an intense, agonizing pain in the 
right limb, from the knee to the toes. On examination the leg 
was cold, and by no means sensitive to the touch. The pulse at 
the wrist small, and the action of the heart tremulous. I resorted 
at once to the use of opiates, with the happy eflfect of relieving the 
pain and rendering her comparatively comfortable. The free use 
of brajidy seemed to restore the circulation to the right limb, and 
the action of the heart became more uniform. Nutritive food and 
stimulants were ordered, to overcome her extreme sense of feeble- 
ness. At 3 o'clock, P. M., of same day, the patient expressed her- 
self free from pain, and seemed much more hopeful. The peculi- 
arity of the attack and the attending symptoms excited in my mind 
apprehensions of impending danger, soon to be verified by sad 
reality. 

On the evening of same day, at 7 J o'clock, pain returned abruptly 
in the right leg, and very soon in the same relative position in the 
left. The pain was sudden, intense and abiding. She writhed in 
agony ; opiates were at hand and resorted to at once. The right 
leg, on examination, was found entirely ecchymosed, the left cold 
and clammy and of a leaden hue, but not ecchymosed. While ex- 
amining the lower extremities, the patient suddenly cried out, 
" Oh, my arms 1" The same pain, in all its intensity, seized her at 
that point also, embracing both fore arms. The pulse at the wrist 
was entirely gone, and the action of the heart irregular. The mind 
of the patient was clear, but oppressed with gloomy forebodings. 
The opiate, after some delay, began to show its eflfect, and the pain 
was considerably relieved; but active and energetic stimulants 
had no eflfect in restoring the fliow of blood to the extremities. At 



64 MBJDICAL SOCIETY OP ^HEW JDRSEY. 

this juncture, Dr. R. M. Cooper saw the patient with m6. The 
necessity of prompt stimulation was apparent, and we united in 
urging the administration of brandy, ammonia, beef essence, &c. 
At midnight, the flushed face and red lips of the patient, gave us 
some hopes of her rallying. On her countenance was still depicted 
great mental and physical distress. No premonition of immediate 
dissolution was apparent, however, and we entertained still some 
hope of her life. Her mind was clear, and there was no dyspnoea. 
At 2 o'clock, A. M., she abruptly expired. The day following a 
post-mortem was broached, but not acceded to. In the mean time 
a certificate for the undertaker being requested, thrombosis was 
given as the cause of death. 

On the evening of the 12th a post-mortem was made ; present, 
Drs. Cooper, Garrison, Troth, Peter V. Schenck and myself. We 
first opened the cavity of the chest, feeling assured that the fault 
was in the circulatory system. On opening the pericardium con- 
siderable efiiision was found within the cavity. The size of the 
heart was very small, and elicited much remark; it probably 
did not weigh more than five ounces. After ligating the 
vessels attached to the heart, we removed that organ from the 
chest. Continuing the investigation, we removed the ligature from 
the aorta. A collection of dark coagulated blood escaped, and im- 
mediately following came a fibrinized clot, diflfering materially in 
color and consistence from that which preceded it, and in size 
about as large as an ordinary hickory nut, though more elongated. 
It may be described as a nucleus of fibrin, surrounded by a coagu- 
lum of blood ; fibrous bands interlacing through this coagulum 
making it firm and resisting to pressure. This clot was passed 
from hand to hand among those present, still retaining its form 
and consistence. On opening the left ventricle, the columnae car- 
neae and semi-lunar valves were found studded with fibrous bodies 
of some size, showing that the thrombus that escaped when we re- 
moved the ligature from the aorta, had been torn from its attach- 



THB0MB08IS. 55 

ments at this point by the pressure of the hand in grasping the 
heart with undue force. 

The examination of the heart disclosed an unexpected condition 
of that organ. On introducing a finger into one of the cavities, to 
feel for the existence of other clots, the muscular tissue of the heart 
gave way, and the finger could be seen externally with only the 
serous tissue intervening. All present tried the same experiment. 
The entire heart was found softened ; the slightest pulling would 
tear, and the smallest pressure would destroy the texture. The 
investigation was not pursued beyond the chest. Some few tuber- 
culous deposits were found in the lungs, but not softened or ad- 
vanced sufficiently to take any part in the fatal issue. 

In the case I have given, a history of the early indications were 
all calculated to inspire confidence. The physical condition of the 
patient for four days succeeding her labor was such as to allay 
every apprehension. The sum of the whole matter at this time 
was a simple case* of obstetrics, occurring under very favorable 
circumstances. A sense of coldness in 'the extremities, with in- 
tense agonizing pain in the right leg, was the first symptom of 
threatened danger. A relief was experienced for a few hours, 
but then the same symptoms returned with increased violence and 
aggravation. The pain returned in both legs almost simultane- 
ously, and in both fore arms entirely so. In the midst of as well 
directed efforts to relieve the patient as could be brought to bear, 
death suddenly and abruptly closed the scene. 

The post-mortem verified the suspicion of a heart clot, and each 
one present ascribed the immediate cause of death to thrombosis. 
The occurrence of pain and the arrest of circulation in the right 
leg may have been occasioned by an embolus from the heart clot 
then forming, breaking oflF and being carried along through the cir- 
culation until it plugged the popliteal artery of that side. Embol- 
ism would scarcely account for the pain in the succeeding attack ; 
emboli would scarcely plug each artery in the extremities simulta- 
neously. Could not the single heart clot, in the position we found 



56 MEDICAL SOCIETY OP NEW JEBSE7. 

it, account for the entire array of symptoms? The caose of pain 
and the actnal pain is often widely separated. Distant morbific 
impressions may have aflFected the nerve centres, and here devel- 
oped itself. Marked instances of metastasis may be seen in nte- 
rine derangements, as we all have occasion to know. The stomach 
presents its legion of sympathetic disturbances. The bladder has 
its intimations of derangements at points distant. The liver has 
been charged with all the ills that flesh is heir to. 

The heart clot impeded the passage of blood into the aorta ; the 
nerve centres felt the lack of a snpply of the vital fluid and sent 
up their cry of agony. It was a living death. The extremities 
were pulseless, cold, ecchymosed, stUl the brain and lungs received 
a supply. There was no dyspnoea at any time, and the mind, as 
her questions and replies indicated, was clear and self-possessed. 
Suddenly the brain ceased to receive its supply of blood, and with 
an abruptness that added sad intensity to the shock, the patient 
ceased to exist. 

The post-mortem lacked in minutiae and extent, but was carried 
sufficiently far, in the estimation of all present, to develope the im- 
mediate cause of death in the thrombus clot. The remote cause 
may probably be found in the softening and atrophy of the heart 
This condition, as the post-mortem showed, was well marked and 
decided. How much this had to do with the formation of the 
thrombus is left to those to decide who deem it worthy of the 
thought 

Instances of this sort are occurring much oftener than the pro- 
fession have noted, and the relation of this case may accomplish 
some good, by attracting the attention of some one or more to the 
subject who are better able to give it the study it deserves. 



THE PUBLIC HEALTH. 



BY EZRA M. HUNT, M. D., OP METUCHEN. 



It is my privilege to make plea before you in behalf of the pub- 
lic health. Such a subject, before such a body as this, needs no 
extended or artistic introduction. The very word, like the joyous 
laugh and the ruddy face of the country school boy, or the rounded 
cheek and better than vermilion flush of female beauty, should 
attract to itself with intuitive enthusiasm. Health I It means, so 
far as human comfort is concerned, the centre and the substance of 
all the sweet amenities of life ; an indispensable prerequisite to the 
ftill success or full enjoyment of existence ; the boon for which the 
languid suflFerer sighs and longs with reachings-out unutterable, 
and the blessing which the happy possessor enjoys with a luscious- 
ness that orator, or pencil, or poet cannot depict. 

Disease I It means the sad sorrows and suflFerings and writhings 
of pain ; the bed-ridden deprivation from the enjoyments of life ; 
the languidness of the walking invalid, with the energies of body, 
mind and soul restricted by the baitings of physical infirmity ; the 
uncomfortable goadings of the mechanic, who feels he must work 
that the wife and little ones may have bread, and yet is neverthe- 
less subjected to influences which enfeeble the arm of industry and 
restrict his capabilities of endurance. 

The contrast is apparent at sight. Surely, all of us will join in 
saying that the very manhood which makes one at all a man, at 
once should elicit an interest in all that relates to such a subject. 
True philanthrophy calls upon religion ; true sympathy calls upon 
benevolence ; law calls upon sanitary science, and our profession 
8 



58 MEDICAL SOCIETY OP NEW JERSEY. 

chimes in the utterance that it is the part of true wisdom to feel 
and act in this behalf, so far as may be necessary to remove recog- 
nized sources of disease ; to mitigate the power of contagion ; to 
enforce such laws of health as are fully settled ; to give informa- 
tion as to existing evils and the methods of abatement, and to 
secure such statistical information as will instruct as to the origin 
and prevalence of influences prejudicial to vigorous vitality. 

While the ancient Greeks appreciated the subject enough to 
erect in every city, from the purest of their quarried marble, 
statues to Hygeia, the goddess of health, that maidens might 
spread the gauze-like veil over her features ot beauty, and matrons 
consecrate to her their flowing locks in signal of the tenderest 
care for the health of their oiBFspring, we should not forget to pro- 
pitiate and secure in our own behalf, the greater potency of those 
settled principles of public health, whose oracles are more respon- 
sive than the favor of dumb deities, and whose help is more avail- 
able and reliable than theirs. 

While ancient Rome had enlightened provision for the health of 
her citizens in aqueducts and baths, and drainage, and methods of 
sanitary police, which even yet may excite admiration and invite 
imitation, and while the most advanced kingdoms of modern Eu- 
rope are now paying attention to the science and securement of 
public health, in a way that shows that those who have charge of 
the public weal can no longer fold their hands and shut their eyes 
as to governmental duty in this direction, it well behooves Ameri- 
can legislation so to inform itself upon the subject as to enable it 
to diffuse such information and provide such laws as shall the bet- 
ter secure the health of the masses. 

It is a happy fact, that the present is a time favorable to action 
in this direction. As a theory, health and the securement of 
health, by law as well as advice, has always been considered a 
good thing, bat the difiSculty was to apply the general principle in 
such a way as to make it practicable. It was like many other 



THE PUBLIC HEALTH. 69 

themes of the past recognized as a principle having merit in it, 
but how to develop it into results was the perplexity. 

But this nineteenth century is remarkable just for this very 
thing ; that it knows how to put ideas in harness. The steam of 
the tea-kettle, which formerly had no practical force or meaning, 
except to tell the good house-wife when the water was boiling, is 
so attached to cars, steamboats, printing presses, and machinery in 
general, that we now could scarce obtain an idea of locomotive or 
mechanical progress without it. 

Electricity, which flashed in the lightning and roared and rum- 
bled through the thunder clouds as an awe-inspiring phenomena in 
Noah's day, and has ever since sparkled in the fur of cats, as an amuse- 
ment to small children, is now so attached to human utterances as 
to have made the whole world its whispering gallery, and is the 
greatest speaker below the stars. 

The same practical application of admitted principles has pre- 
vailed as to discoveries in ethics, in political economy, in social 
life, and to a very practical, although still imperfect extent, the 
grand generalizations and experiences of the past have come to 
be applied to great questions of moral, educational, political, social 
and sanitary reform. 

So far as health is concerned, the great error both of individuals 
and governments, and I may also say of medical men, has been that 
they have looked with too great exclusiveness to the means of 
curing disease, and have not associated with it enough of the idea 
of prevention. This being the case, and governments feeling it 
to be their duty to do something to promote the health of the citi- 
zen, we find that legislation first took the direction of granting 
protection to the members of the " healing art." The theory was 
that inasmuch as the great method of securing health to the com- 
munity was to secure men well trained to cure disease, none should 
be allowed to practice who had not been thoroughly schooled in 
this art, and this training had almost sole reference to the cure of 
disease, and thought little of its prevention. 



60 MEDICAL SOCIETY OP NEW JERSET. 

Hence, such governments as those of Prussia, England and 
Prance, provided the most careful safeguards for this kind of edu- 
cation, and the United States, in its earlier history, followed pre- 
cisely the same course. Especially was this the case in the State 
of New Jersey, where, by early statute and general consent, the 
people were well and thoroughly protected by such laws as pro- 
vided lor the thorough preparation of those to whom were com- 
mitted the interests of the sick. 

I do not here and now propose to vindicate the propriety of this 
course, but suffice it to know that all this has by legislation and other- 
wise been thoroughly changed, and that the medical profession have 
fully accepted the situation. So far from asking any special legis- 
lation or protection, by an act framed by the oldest and noblest 
Medical Society of the State, and the oldest of the nation, all laws 
conferring exclusive privileges have been fully annulled, and the 
only relation we now bear is that conceded to citizens or to any 
corporation engaged in the exercise of a lawful calling, and if in- 
terested in matters of social and sanitary reform more than the 
masses generally, it is only because in the exercise of our vocation 
these needs are presented oftener and more palpably to our eyes. 

We now rely upon that self-protection which eventually accrues 
from the real merit of a profession or a science as*sustained by 
results, while we also challenge for our calling the approbation of 
mankind, by making it the occasion for the vindication and asser- 
tion of those great principles of sanitary philanthrophy which are 
intimately blended with all that relates to social, civil, physical 
and moral elevation. 

Our profession now more than ever before comprehends two 
general pursuits, viz : that which has to do with the treatment of 
disease, and that which concerns its prevention. 

In a business and art cultivating sense, we have chiefly to do 
with the treatment, and from a low stand-point of observation it 
would seem sufficient for us to look after this, as this is the only de- 
partment for which the people pay. Now, Doctors, innocent and 



THE PUBLIC HEALTH. 61 

philanthropic as they are, believe in making a living, and hence it 
is not surprising that their attention is first directed to the treat- 
ment of disease. 

He is considered a very model of honesty who, as a lawyer, en- 
deavors to settle every cause in his office ; to bring together both 
plaintiflF and defendaint in the spirit of private conciliation, to tell 
each all he knows about the process of law, and the merits of his 
particular case ; and just on a par with him, only on a grander 
scale, are medical men, when instead of contenting themselves 
with attention to individual treatment, they grasp at exciting causes, 
and with outspoken facts and telling arguments beseech the people 
to avoid the sadder controversies of disease. 

Yet as true science is always self-sacrificing, and as evidence is 
so often and palpably presented to the practitioner of medicine, 
that a large share of human malady is plainly and absolutely pre- 
ventible, it is not surprising that the mass of intelligent physi- 
cians are always found enthusiasts as to sanitary reform, and those 
who are not. are only less active because they have not fully ac- 
quainted themselves with the potency and prevalency of abatable 
antagonists to vigorous vitality. Within the last few years inves- 
tigations as to human life have, with many, taken the direction of 
inquiry into the causes of epidemics, and of unliealthy influences 
generally, and the result has been that definite facts have been ob- 
tained, definite views promulgated, and definite principles settled. 
Much indeed remains to be done, but this does not impair the 
validity of what is known, but is the great argument for the appli- 
cation of principles so fai' as settled to communities and States. 
The prevention of the spread and prevalence of disease, the best 
methods of abating its causes, the deteriorating influences upon 
society, and the methods of limiting them, and how to promote 
labor by removing from it, the incubus of ill health — ^these and 
other questions are not only points in sanitary science but in polit- 
ical economy, which are being studied not only by medical men, 
but by philanthropists of every grade, and publicists, and statists. 



62 MEDICAL SOCIETY OP NEW JERSEY. 

and statesmen of the highest reputation. The application of these 
principles has also been so far made as completely to settle their 
availability, so that in adopting them we are but acting on the 
well-tried experience of other countries and of other States, and 
therefore making no doubtful experiment. 

The cholera as a recent visitation, will serve as an illustration of 
this fact. It is all the fairer to introduce it because it is one of 
those diseases the actual originating cause of which is not known, 
and one therefore which we combat under disadvantages, which 
do not attach to many other preventive efforts. 

Yet while admitting that the cause is not yet detected, that specific 
remedies for it are not known, that the mortality from those under 
full seizure therewith is not even diminished, yet the medical pro- 
fession, and in accord with them the French and English govern- 
ments, and Rome of the American States, took the ground that it 
cotild be limited by proper sanitary police. 

If the wise entomologist cannot prevent some pestiferous insect 
from depositing its eggs, the next wisest thing is to break up the 
neat, so that they may never be hatched, and although the preven- 
tion of the laying would be a little grander, as a logical method, 
yet the reault is precisely the same. 

And so with cholera. Health Boards, where they had the 
power, went upon the principle that if the seed could not be de- 
tected, we would at least attack the soil in which it was wont to 
sprout, and prevent its germination. New York tried that experi- 
ment under gi-eat disadvantages, and the result is a demonstration. 
So far as London and Paris followed the same methods, they at- 
tained to some results. St. Louis and Cincinnati trusted to the 
force of circumstances, and buried over three thousand with chol- 
era, and suffered by tens of thousands in business reputation. 

A single instance in New York city will suffice : On the 28th of 
July cholera appeared suddenly and fearfully, as an epidemic, in the 
Work'House on BlackwelFs Island, and assumed its most malig- 
nant type. Up to the 6th of August, a period of nine days, there 



THE PUBLIC HEALTH. 63 

were, among eight hundred inmates, one hundred and twenty- 
three deaths. 

" On Wednesday, the 1st of August, when the epidemic was at 
its height," says Professor Frank Hamilton, " I gave my pledge to 
the Board of Health that I would drive the cholera from the 
Work-House in from three to five days. I said this in no spirit 
of boasting, but in simple reliance on the well-known and estab- 
lished laws of hygiene. The Commissioners executed literally and 
promptly every order which was given. The epidemic began to 
decline from the day they were fully carried out, and on August 
6th, the pledge was redeemed. The inmates were distributed, as 
far as the vacant places in the building would permit; the cell 
doors were left open at night, the night buckets were supplied 
with disinfectants and left outside ; the women's cooking rooms 
were converted into hospital wards, and the women were kept out 
of doors from morning until night ; corn meal and molasses were 
taken from the table, and coffee, tea and vegetables were added. 
A variety of disinfectants were employed freely and constantly in 
every vessel and closet which received the excreta ; even the ex- 
creta from the stomach were disinfected immediately after they 
were received into a vessel or fell on the floor ; stoves were placed 
in each hospital ward to insure a draft ; all windows were kept 
open night and day ; the clothing taken from cholera patients was 
sent directly to the boilers ; a ward was established for patients 
with the diarrhoea, and the value of this measure is shown by the 
fact that, of the large number received into this ward, only one 
died.'' 

Over and over again have the same series of facts as to cholera 
been illustrated, and with a uniformity of results that convinces all 
who have paid attention to the subject. A similar series of con- 
secutive evidence obtains as to various other diseases. 

In many parts of continental Europe vaccination has so much 
settled into an indispensable necessity, and is so enforced by legal 
provision, that small-pox has almost entirely disappeared. 



64 MEDICAL SOCIETY OF NEW JEBSEY. 

The average of Northern Europe, where it once prevailed, is 
now about two or three from small-pox to every one thousand from 
other diseases, and from the city of Copenhagen it was so thor- 
oughly banisned, as that a single death from it did not occur for 
thirteen years. 

The city of Boston has reported as low as one death in a year, 
and during the entire period of thirty years in which a strict law 
as to vaccination was in force, only thirty-seven deaths occurred. 
In 1836 that law was repealed, and in the next twelve and a-half 
years they reported six hundred and seventy-nine deaths from 
small-pox. 

In the city of New York during the last sixteen years, ending 
with 1864, there were over six thousand reported deaths from this 
disease, when every physician knew that proper vaccination would 
have prevented not less than five thousand eight hundred of them. 
In 1865 the corps of Sanitary Inspectors of New York, in the 
course of a few days, obtained evidence of over fifteen hundred 
cases of the disease. 

The results which have followed enforced vaccination in Massa- 
chusetts, in Baltimore, in Providence, and more recently in New 
York city, demonstrate what had been over and over again demon- 
strated on the continent and in Great Britain, viz. : that there 
are deaths by thousands and sicknesses by tens of thousands yearly 
from this disease that are wholly preventible. It is not because of 
the inefficiency of the protection, but because of neglect in its ap- 
plication, and this is because it has been left too much as a matter 
of private concern, when the public good and the public's rights — 
which every citizen has a right to claim from every other — de- 
mand the eradication and annihilation of the disease ; yet in New 
Jersey it has been an epidemic within the last five years in five 
counties of the State, and has numbered its victims by hundreds. 

The fact that typhus fever owes its origin to disregard of plain 
and recognized laws of health, is no longer a question among med- 
ical men, and the fever nests of filth and vice generate a poison 



THE PUBLIC HEALTH. 65 

I 

I which not only lurks in these abodes, but is often carried by the 
inmates to the places of public mart, and transported to the homes 
of comfort and wealth. 

In the year 1864, eighty cases of typhus fever occurred in one 
I of the packed tenant houses near Stuyvesant square, and multi- 
tudes of cases occurring in yarious localities were traceable to 
fever nests kept incubating by means of existing local evils. 

(For these, and other and fuller facts, as before referred to, see 
Sanitary Eeport of the Citizens' Association of New York, 1865.) 

An unmistakable connection has also been recognized between 
what are known as typhoid fevers and local influences capable of 
prevention and abatement. 

If we turn to the large class of diseases having to do with the 
breathing apparatus, we find that consumption, and a large propor- 
tion of lung aflfections generally are originated or fostered by the 
foul air and imperfect food of packed and squalid wretchedness, 
and those in higher grades of life often succumb to those secondary 
influences, when a different location and different circumstances 
would have rescued them. 

Over and over again do we see such a disease as croup resulting 
from modes of sleeping, from imperfect ventilation, and from the 
various causes that deteriorate the purity of wholesome air, and 
that in houses which admit of proper heating and ventilation. 

If we notice the large class of bowel and diarrhoeal affections 
which number their victims by so many thousands, we find that the 
most prevalent varieties are induced by causes which are control- 
lable. 

The ablest European and American sanitarians now generally 
classify not only the above named maladies, but scarletina, measles, 
diphtheria, hooping cough, erysipelas and puerperal fever among 
zymotic or foul air diseases ; in other words, as maladies whose 
occurrence, intensity and fatality are largely dependent upon local 
and avoidable influences. 



66 MEDICAL S0CIST7 OP NEW JEBSE7. 

The triumph over scarlet fever in some of the wards of New 
York city, last winter, by the use of hygienic measures, was no less 
demonstrative than the success against the cholera in the summer. 

I need not remind you how large a per centage of deaths occur 
from these diseases, how they invade the country as well as cities, 
and while they nestle and acquire force and malignancy in the 
crowded houses of the poor, they not unfrequently stalk out with 
deadly tread, and claim their victims by hundreds and thousands 
from the homes of comfort, and amid the insignia of wealth. It 
is not by special epidemics, such as cholera and yellow fever, that 
the masses are hurried to the grave, that labor is enfeebled, that 
capital is paralyzed, so much as by those silent and ever potent in- 
fluences which make themselves felt in these more usual channels, 
and which with stealthy and quiet depression, sap the foundations 
and drain out the substance of vigorous life. 

Rushing mighty winds and raging storms attract our notice most, 
but gentle rains, noiseless dews, and the ten thousand silent forces 
of nature are the chief and master workers in elaborating the util- 
izing and sustaining products of human life. What is true of the 
general dynamic forces of nature, is equally true in contrast, of the 
sad adynamic forces of disease. 

These epidemics are often but demonstrative exhibitions of the 
more declarative, malignant influences, attracting attention by their 
suddenness and severity, while the every-day ailments, fostered by 
constant and persistent, stealthy aids and abettors, make up the 
aggregate of the bills of mortality. 

As he is the wisest practitioner who, instead of spending all his 
time in watching for anomalies, is ready to meet the every-day ail- 
ments of human life, so that community, and city, and State is 
wisest which, instead of waiting for epidemics to remind it of the 
daily doings of disease and death, provides, all along, for the pre- 
vention of prevalent and pervading recognized causes of daily oc- 
curring ailment. Some have already adopted this method, and so 
satisfactory has been the enactment of even stringent measures in 



THE PUBLIC HEALTH. 67 

these regards, that out of manifold examples we have not, so &r as 
I am aware, a single instance in which health reform, on the basis 
of defined legal enactment, once fairly begun, has been abandoned, 
but many instances in which, after thorough trial, odious measures 
have become popular, and been sustained by the conferment of ad- 
ditional power. 

Under direct sanitary measures Great Britain records the fol- 
lowing change as to death rates : 

London, from 50 per 1,000 to - - - 24 

Liverpool, " 36 " " . . . . 24 

Manchester, " 37 " " - - - 27 

Glasgow, " 33 " u . . . . 27 
And in like decrease for other towns. 

Special wards or districts, and even special houses have, un- 
der sanitary police, shown just as decided, or uniform a diminution. 
(See report of Council of Hygiene, New York, 1865, and weekly 
reports of Dr. B. Harris, 1866 and 1867.) In one ward in New 
York city the uniform death rate has been 1 in 60, while in an- 
other it was but 1 in 22, and sanitary examination shows adequate, 
and to a large degree abatable causes. 

" So uniformly did a diminution of deaths follow in the United 
Kingdom, under the Public Health Act, that not only has the So- 
cial Science Association of Great Britain made it a prominent spe- 
cialty, but voluntary local societies were formed in various locali- 
ties, which have done much to aid the government in popularizing 
stringent sanitary laws." 

Now it must be remembered that every case of death represents 
not less than twenty-five cases of sickness, as computed from sta- 
tistics on a large scale, and we thus still more magnify the value 
of this reform. 

It must also be remembered that every case of sickness represents an 
average of ten days of lost labor, and if the sickness be that of children, 
by the expense and the demand made on the time of others, it be- 
longs not the less to the unprofitable expenditures of disease. We 



68 xEDiCAL socnnr of itew jebset. 

thus form an idea of the tax which all manner of disease leries on 
the industrial and material interests of society, while philanthropy 
plaintively declares that the higher argument of alleviating hnman 
sorrow, and of overcoming hninan degradation on^t to be enough. 
Indeed, if we will but only think of this whole subject, in the view 
of £icts, and what we ourselves may see and know, we seem almost 
to be dealing with axioms, when we attempt to demonstrate the 
necessity of that action which the plainest common sense itself 
commands. 

Even the general public ought scarcely to need the array of 
£icts to teach them that lungs, intended for pure air, and blood, 
needing good oxygen, will not be satisfied with air loaded with the 
unhealthy gases of disorganizing material ; that the stomach will 
not properly feed the whole inner man, if at the base of supplies is 
crowded in the coarsest and the most objectionable of food; that 
the bndn and the nervous system wiU not keep up the delicate har- 
mony of their magnetic thrill, when cheated of appropriate pabu- 
lum; and that manhood will not sustain itself physicaly, intellec- 
tually or morally, when subject to influences utterly at war with 
the plainest axioms of sanitary economy. 

While all are ready, however, to admit, in general terms, an 
existing connection between disease and such marked influences, 
very few realize the degree or extent to which human ailments are 
preventable. The bills of mortality of large cities which are now 
being more carefully regulated and compared than heretofore, 
show that a very large per centage of deaths are owing to pre- 
ventable diseases, and examination as to less fatal sickness and its 
connection with anti-sanitary causes, develop a similar result, only 
multiplied by the larger proportion of cases. If the days of the 
years of our pilgrimage are three score years and ten, we see no 
good reason why the average of human life should fall so far below 
twenty, and why hecatombs of children should be sacrificed under 
the age of five. 

Sanitary science is no longer a subject for doubtful disputation ; 



THE PUBLIC HEALTH. 69 

not one about which even the diflFerent denominations of doctors 
differ, and the application of its principles, suggested by reason and 
supported by practical experience and classified results, ftdly attest 
the necessity of its application, wherever men are associated, or 
wherever human life seeks to be sustained. 

The great practical question is. How shall the knowledge already 
obtained be made available ? How shall the tens of thousands of 
lives now sacrificed by preventable disease be lengthened ? How 
shall the land be delivered from pestiferous influences which are 
silently at work desolating and destroying life in a country where, 
beyond all others, life is valuable — where the estimated import- 
ance of each man, even as a piece of machinery, is over one thou- 
sand dollars; where the importance of his intellect, astir with 
all the energies of a progressive nationality, is beyond estimate : 
and where his moral susceptibilities and influences are capable of 
a glorious and yet to be glorified expansion. 

1st. The result can only be obtained by the enactment of such 
laws as will confer power to enforce the well understood principles 
of sanitary and hygienic reform. 

2d. These must be pleaded for by those who, as medical men, or 
as observing philanthropists, are alive to such needs. 

3d. Such information must be diffused, and such facts presented 
from time to time to those concerned, as will enable them to ap- 
preciate the value of such provisions. 

I name the enactment of law first, because it is, necessarily, the 
basic structure upon which the value and success of the other 
agencies depend. 

The pleadings of physicians and sanitarians may open the eyes, 
but cannot, without legislative aid, apply the remedy and secure 
the results. The ultima thule of all philanthropy is to secure an i 

act, or enactment, a legislative order, a law. I 

All philanthropy which attempts to be self-sustaining will ulti- ' 

mately fail, or be restricted in its results. In vain do Howards 
travel through prisons, or such women as Miss Dix, seek out the 



70 MEDICAL SOCIETY OF HEW JEB8E7. 

demented, or a Miss Nightingale learn in fever wards how easy it 
is to prevent the disease, but how difficult to cure it, unless their 
pleadings lead law, with its majestic hand, to take hold of the 
home manu&ctured diseases which victimize its great client con- 
stituency, the people, and with its majestic aegis, and its wand of 
magic right, bid them avaunt! begone! not like a wierd enchan- 
tress or a witch, but like a Hercules, never grander than when he 
cleared the Augean stables of their filth ; or, like an Epaminondas, 
never more of a man than when he delivered his city of the causes 
that killed its men by stealth, and elevated their physique, their 
strength, and so their minds, their souls, and thus made prowess for 
his commonwealth and glory for the world. 

Mqral suasion and information will not keep people from crime, 
unless aided by law ; nor is it any more reasonable to expect that 
good advice will cleanse the* loaded air, the reeking gutter, or 
other sources of disease. Nor can information be generally dif- 
fused, unless provision is made for its circulation. I am not of 
those who believe in enforced law, which does not in due time se- 
cure the general sentiment or sanction of the people ; but law is a 
great educator, and makes more of the material of moral suasion 
than is manufactured by any other agency — and it is often needed 
to be in advance of public sentiment. This is especially the case 
where it is aimed at nuisances which are considered by the persons 
concerned profitable or convenient, and in such cases the only 
means to obtain results, is to enact the laws, with the law furnish 
the evidence of its need, and by the results accruing from its en- 
actment, illustrate them. Thus you at length bring up the stand- 
ard of education and of duty, when effort by either alone would be 
Utopian. Let the Legislature of New Jersey, or the municipal 
authorities of any great city, such as Newark, give to competent 
officers the means of thoroughly carrying out the admitted princi- 
ples of preserving human health, and the deatli rate of your city, 
from being one in forty-two, ought soon to fall as low as one in 
sixty, and with a proper provision for publishing condensed facts 



THE PUBLIC HEALTH. 71 

and deductions as to health, your alleys and tenements would be 
freer from disease, your market properly ventilated, deleterious 
gases neutralized, deleterious trades guarded by antidotes, epidem- 
ics more fully controlled, and the blessed wedlock of labor and 
capital so auspiciously plighted in your city, woul^ bring forth 
more abundantly, and fill the land with its health sustained and 
augmented fruitfiilness. 

And why should not legal enactment take fast hold of this whole 
subject ? Why should disease any more than other felonies be per- 
mitted to run riot by day time and moan, and lurk by night, when 
not less than one-half of it can be prevented ? Is the privilege of 
dying before one's time so precious, or the murder of the innocents 
so much a private right that it must not be interfered with ? Is pain 
and sickness so human a thing that it is inhuman to constrict it ? 
Are labor and health such immaterial interests, that they are not 
to be guarded by law to the full extent of information as to their 
requirements? Is it right that many of our cities are without any 
health boards at all, and that many that have them, so subject 
them to the overruling power of political superiors, that they are 
comparatively useless ? 

Newark, Jersey City and Camden are the only cities, I think,, 
in which municipal provisions are at all up to the standard of san- 
itary reform, and yet none recognize more than the physicians and 
intelligent lay sanitarians of these cities, how much remains to be 
done in them. 

But while many admit the importance of more eflScient sanitary 
regulations in cities, there are those who are disposed to leave the 
villages and the general country to take care of itself, on the ground 
that, in rural districts and smaller towns, no causes of disease exist 
which are not recognized and overcome without process of law. 

But facts do not sustain these views. 

The report of two or three hundred cases of small-pox in Newark 
or Trenton, makes indeed the large impression on the public ear 
which' numbers always make, but is in reality no more serious a 



72 MEDICAL SOCIETY OP NEW JERSEY. 

matter than the occurrence of five unnecessary cases in a small 
country town. In its proportion, and even a little more than its pro- 
portion, the prevalence of scarlet fever, diphtheria, cholera, small- 
pox, typhoid fever, measles, or such like diseases in a country 
place, excite^ popular dread or apprehension, because the cases are 
more fully known and apt to be more exaggerated. 

Nor is it alone in large cities that epidemics or zymotic dis- 
eases find lodgment. It was at Windsor Castle, and not in the 
heart of London, that Prince Albert contracted his fatal typhoid 
fever, and the great statesman of Italy died of congestive chill, 
which had its origin in the country. 

In our smaller villages there are often more private sources of 
nuisance that need removal, or in reference to which the people 
need to be instructed, I have known typhoid fever to prevail in 
country towns and in the vicinities of cities, and even to be localized 
in some particular neighborhood or house, and to follow successive 
families, and only to disappear after a general cleansing of what 
had been regarded as healthy premises. 

Cholera appeared in South Amboy not less virulently than in 
Elizabeth, and yet as the former is a country town, it had no method 
of sanitary police, and it was only by the prompt agency of phy- 
sicians, and the assistance of the Camden and Amboy Railroad 
Company, that reform was effected. The very bed on which a 
cholera patient had died, was sold at auction in less than twenty- 
four hours, and no one in the town but a resolute physician who, 
at his own risk, ordered it to be burned, had the power to prevent 
it. Just such cases may occur in Plainfield, Newton and many 
other smaller non-incorporated towns. The large class of mias- 
matic diseases have to do with the country more than with the 
city, and the whole subject of drainage is scarcely less important 
in reference to rural districts than to cities. The diffusion of infor- 
mation as to public health, is in its proportion as important to 
the country as to the city. I have seen, as has every countiy phy- 
sician, houses and bed rooms so closed and fired up in winter in the 



THE PUBLIC HEALTH. 73 

open country, that the inmates suflfered from defective ventila- 
tion ; cellars, that with dampness and decaying vegetables were 
breeding the causes of depressed vitality, if not of fatal sickness ; 
privies and outhouses so imperfectly constructed that they failed 
to concur with the conditions of health; slaughter.housps so oflFen- 
sive that all the neighborhood complained, and yet so difficult to 
reach by the slow and e3q)ensive process of present law, that 
they were practically unabatable ; poor-houses situated in country 
districts that need the application of hygeinic measures ; mills 
and bone boiling establishments, and poudrette factories, lo- 
cated outside of city limits, and yet recognized sources of ill- 
health to the vicinities ; and so we have abundant evidence that 
while the country does not need the aggregate of attention bestowed 
upon cities, yet it, too, has sources of disease which need abatement 
and information, and in its comparative degree must be regarded. 

In fact, in order to keep cities healthy, we need to make the coun- 
try as healthy as possible, because the intercommunication between 
city and country is such that both in their pi^)portion need to be 
protected. If by law all the slaughter houses and bone boiling 
establishments are expelled beyond city limits, even that is bet- 
ter than to leave them in the crowded town ; but if, when they 
move to the country, they find there a preventive law, the result is 
that it, too, is delivered from its diluted but still real evil, while as a 
result, the slaughter-house give way to the abbattoir and the bone 
boiling process has applied to it such laws of chemical neutralization 
as render it innoxious and harmless. 

Especially in such a state as New Jersey, where cities touch 
towns, and towns, villages, and the villages are almost in speaking 
distance, it is vain to talk of proper protection of cities without 
extending modified power over sparser localities. If you wiU take 
a nucleus of twelve miles from every city of our State, you will 
embrace its entire length, and the time is not far distant when this 
will embrace also the breadth ; and yet Yonkers, twelve miles from 
New York, was embraced in the sanitary district of New York 
10 



74 MEDtCAL SOCIETY OF NEW JERSEY. 

city, while Jamaica and Hempstead, towns quite distant from the 
city, petitioned with great unanimity to be included. 

It is a good thing to have a law which protects a city within its 
limits, but it is a great misfortune if at a point just outside, and of 
unavoidable communication, they caA have a small-pox, cholera or 
fever manufactory, in foil blast. 

Besides, in order to arrive at instructive results, and to secure 
the value of vital statistics, we need a thorough knowledge of the 
rates of mortality, and the tendencies of disease in the coun- 
try. Thus, when we find the rate of deaths in Berkshire County, 
Massachusetts, about twenty to the one thousand, and study the 
ages and causes, and so with other districts, we have grounds of 
comparison for cities. Our present system of vital statistics is so 
utterly valueless, that I am justified in saying that our State 
wastes in this direction several thousand dollars annually, and 
unless they are systematized and made available in some other way 
than at present, I hope that the efibrt to collect them will be aban- 
doned. Our present Secretary of State recognizes this defect and 
is not accountable therefor. 

But, gentlemen, I will not longer trespass upon your valuable 
time, or upon the courtesy which has invited me to present this 
subject to your consideration. Those of you who are alive to the 
evidence which each year is more fully affording, that we should 
earnestly study the art of prevention as well as the art of cure, will ex- 
cuse me for stirring up your pure minds by way of remembrance; 
and those who have not turned particular attention in this direc- 
tion, will, 1 trust, be led by this imperfect survey to look more 
thoroughly into the whole subject. It is grand to meet sickness 
and to cure the maladies which we find developed, but it is grand- 
er to remedy morbid causes instead of morbid effects, and with the 
kindred desires of philanthrophy and learning, to reach out in be- 
half of the dissemination of those correct views of human life 
which enable us to dry up some of the sources of human ailment. 
Reform in this direction must find its first and firmest friends 



fUE PtJfiLrO flEALTH. 75 

kmorig the practitioners of medicine, and have, as it then will, the 
aid and countenance of all those who as civilians take broad and 
intelligent views of those conditions of health which are necessary 
to promote the welfare of the State no less than that of the citizen. As 
health is one of the first conditions of physical or intellectual pro- 
gress, and has to do so intimately with the social and productive 
interests of a nation, those not of our profession will not fail in 
the face of facts and reasoning fairly presented by yourselves, to 
become the advocates of such general measures as will secure the 
desired results. It was Chadwick, of London, who in his relation 
to the middle classes, took the ground that the best way to dry up 
the fountains of crime which filth and foul air augmented, and 
make labor and capital to the highest degree productive, was to 
elevate the masses, and insisting upon the value of surroundings 
favorable to physical health he provided for them homes, free from 
these vitiating influences. In a word, he improved their condition 
for health, and found that with this tlie tendency to vice abated, 
and that moral and mental followed physical and social elevation. 
More recently, Alderman Waterlow, of London, has made princely 
outlay for establishing improved dwellings for the poor, and well- 
conducted lodging houses for laboring men ; and our own noble 
Peabody, in the munificence of his princely patronage, did not for- 
get among his earliest benefactors to make a large appropriation of 
750,000 gold dollars in the direction of sanitary reform. It is 
safe to be the instigators or abettors of such philanthrophy, and in 
pleading for such general laws as shall secure the application of 
the best devised and well understood principle of sanitary science 
to the prevention or limitation of disease, we, in our honored sphere 
as physicians, promote the common welfare of the whole people, 
and thus do our part in this grand advance of civilization, and in 
intelligent attention to the material interests of society. 

Arnulph was the son of a physician, and was preparing himself 
for the calling of his father. One day he came to his father and 
said, " Father, let me go into the cloister and serve God." His 



76 KEDICAL 60CIETT OF NEW JEBSET. 

facher eald, << Thou dost well to serve God. As a physidaiL thou 
mayest serve Him and thy fellow-men also." 

That night Amulph had a vision, and lo, an angel, with each 
hand full of roses. 

" And why," said Amulph, " are the roses in thy left hand scent- 
less ? Those in thy right hand are fiill of fragrance." 

And the angel answered, « In my left hand are the offerings of 
those who would serve the Heavenly Father without serving His 
children. In my right hand ai-e their offerings who serve God 
and serve their fellow-men. As a physician thou mayest serve 
Him and thy fellow-men also." 

To a high and noble department of such service, it has thus been 
my privilege to call your kind attention. 



THE FIRST FIFTY YEARS* 

OF THE 

District Medical Society of Essex County. 



BY J. HENRY CLARK, A. M., M. D. 



"-4r« Longaj Vita Brevis,''^ 
Perhaps there has been no era in this world's history so thor- 
oughly written up by the cotemporaneous historian as the present. 
It is one of the important purposes accomplished by the District 
Medical Society to perpetuate the lifetime acts of those who were 
faithful to the obligations which rest upon the honest inquirer 
after truths which shall bless mankind. It is our business to re- 
cord for future reference, and compare all that seems like progress 
in the great work of prolonging human life, or mitigating human 
suffering. 

BACK TO THE ANTE-REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD. 

If we take a glance backward from our standpoint upon the 
threshold of this enterprise into the darkness and obscurity of the 
preceding semi-centennial period, it will become the more appa- 
rent that organization is essential to the preservation of historic 
record. 



* Extract from the Minutes of iJie Semi-CenUnniaZ Meeting of (he Essex District Medical 

Society^ April^ 1866. 
Besdvedj That the thanks of this Society be tendered to Dr. J. Heniy Clark for his very 
interesting and valuable historical paper, and that he be requested further, to perfect it, 
and to furnish a copy of the same to the Standing Committee of the Medical Society of New 
Jersey, for publication in their volume of Transactions." 



78 MEDICAL SOCIETY OP NEW JEBSET. 

In order to l3ring up our history to the starting point, let us 
pause awhile, and rub oflF the mosses gathered on ancient tomb- 
stones. Let us examine old documents, and talk a little with some 
of the lingerers of antecedent generations. 

In 1664 the site of Elizabeth was purchased of the Indians. In 
1669, under the Berkley and Carteret grant, a settlement was there 
made. Elizabeth and Newark seem to have been settled to some 
degree during these years by emigration from Europe, and also from 
Xong Island and New York. Newark, however, is scarce known 
until settled by a colony from Milford, Connecticut, in 1666. Thus 
Newark had a New England origin, while Elizabeth was settled to 
a considerable degree by English emigration. We do not learn 
that any physicians were imported in any of these colonies. The 
Doctors Morse, Burnet, Barnet of Elizabeth, Clark and others of 
Newark, were unquestionably descended directly from those who 
landed with Philip Carteret, the first Governor of New Jersey, in 
1669. Many of the physicians of Newark probably descended 
from New England ancestors. 

With this intimation of the earliest data, we proceed to record 
the names of physicians as nearly as possible in the order of the 
dates. 

During the earliest period of medical record in Essex County, 
we find clergymen performing the double duty of caring for the 
physical and spiritual interests of their flocks. We find Pierson 
in 1667, Dickinson in 1707, Derby in 1750, and Grover in 1780, 
practicing medicine respectively in Newark, Elizabeth, Parsippa- 
ny and Caldwell, and also filling their pulpits. We have there- 
fore reason to believe that the earliest Doctors were also Pastors. 

ABRAHAM PIERSON 

came to Newark from Brantford, Connecticut, with his church, in 
1667. He came an old man. A new churcli was built soon after 
his arrival, thirteen feet high and twenty-six by thirty-four on the 
ground. To its construction the town voted thirty pounds. An 



HISTORY OP ESSEX DISTRICT MEDICAL SOCIETY. 79 

" Inn Keeper " is appointed by the vote of the town, but no men- 
tion is made of a physician. Rev. Abraham Pierson, D. D., came 
from England to Guilford, Connecticut, in 1665. He is spoken 
of as a man of "learning, wisdom and piety." He was the first 
pastor of the First Presbyterian Church in Newark. He is said„ 
like many clergymen of his day, to have added the practice of med- 
icine to his other duties. His salary was eighty pounds a year^ 
about two hundred dollars, and as " perquisites " one pound of 
butter from each " milch cow in the town," and the never-to-be- 
forgotten Lord's half-penny. He died August 7th, 1678. 

JONATHAN DICKINSON 

was the first President of the College of New Jersey, then located 
in Elizabeth, and he was also pastor of the First Presbyterian 
Church in that place. From 1708 on to 1747 he was a practicing 
physician, and had considerable medical reputation. He died at 
Elizabeth, (then Elizabethtown) October 7th, 1747, in the 60th 
year of his age. It is said of Rev. Jonathan Dickinson, D. D., in 
Dr. Murray's notes concerning Elizabeth : 

" His must have been a life of great activity and industry, when 
it is remembered that in addition to his duties as a pastor and 
teacher and farmer, and the studies imposed by his numerous and 
ardent controversies, he was a practicing physician, and obtained 
considerable medical reputation. So devoted was he as a minister^ 
so untiring were his efforts to do good, so discriminating and pow- 
erfiil was he as a preacher, so dignified and bland were his manners,, 
so ardent his attachment to the truth, and so firm and cogent was; 
he in its advocacy, that his memory yet is inestimably precious."' 

The business of the western and northern parts of Essex Coun- 
ty was done then as now, mostly by physicians who resided in 
Morris County. 

JOHN DARBY. 

Cotemporaneous with Eev. Dr. Dickinson, of Elizabeth, was 
Rev. John Darby, of Parsippany, who practiced on the western 



80 ,m3>ICAL SOCEBIT OP NEW JEBSBT. 

borders of Essex Connty, and also preached the gospel. He was 
a Presbyterian minister. We are indebted to Dr. R. V. W. Pair- 
child for the following history of the physicians who have prac- 
ticed medicine on onr western border from the ante-Berolntionary 
period: 

** John Darby, during the Bevolntion and afterward, followed the 
two-fold avocation, at Parsippany, of preaching the gospel and 
practicing medicine. He supplied the pulpit on Sunday, and prac- 
ticed medicine during the week. He iirst studied theology, and 
afterwards studied medicine. He died in 1805, aged 80 years. 

HENBY WHITE DABBY, 

the son of John Darby, graduated at one of the Eastern colleges. 
He afterward studied medicine, and practiced at Parsippany. He 
was five feet ten inches in height, had blue eyes, was rather spare, 
and raw-boned. He had a talent for painting and drawing. He 
was a scholar and great wit, and a lover of fun and frolic. He was 
cotemporary with John Darcy and John C. Budd. The three fre- 
quently met together socially, and there are many amusing stories 
still related of them. Henry W. Darby died December, 1806, 
aged 48 years. 

PETEB VBEDENBUBG 

succeeded Henry W. Darby in 1807, and removed to Somerville 
in 1810. He sold his practice to 

CYBUS HABTWELL, 

who died of consumption, February 9th, 1816, aged 32 years. 

STEPHEN PAIBOHILD 

was a surgeon in the war of 1812, and was at the battle of Queens- 
town when General Brock was killed. He came to Parsippany 
February, 1816, and was cotemporary with Jeptha B. Munn and 
John S. Darcy while he practiced in Morris County. Timothy 



HISTORY OP ESSEX DISTRICT MEDICAL SOCIETY. 81 

Kitchell practiced with John S. Darcy in Hanover, and succeeded 
him in practice there." 

Dr. Fairchild has practiced medicine in Parsippany over half a 
century, and now at 75 he still wears the harness, assisted by his 
son, who kindly furnished us the above facts in history. He par- 
ticipated in the battles of " Lundy's Lane " and " Queensboro." 
He was a graduate of the University of Pennsylvania, and is the 
oldest practitioner in Morris County. 

SAMIJBL WTJRTS. 

During the Revolutionary period the northwestern part of our 
county was ridden over by Dr. Samuel Wurts, of Montville. After 
over half a century of labor, from 1785, he died in 1835, aged 75 
years. A portion of his field is now occupied by the excellent and 
venerable Timothy Kitchell, of Whippany, who at three score 
years and ten still lives in the saddle. May he long live on to be 
useful and beloved. 

The eastern portion was formerly served by James Orton, the 
venerable father of J. D. Orton, Esq., of this city, who has retired 
from practice. 

JACOB ARENTS. 

It would appear that a Hollander by the name of Dr. Jacob 
Arents was naturalized in 1716-17. We learn from old deeds and 
incidental evidences that he practiced medicine in Newark from 
that time until about 1750. 

GERARD JOHN SCHUTTS. 

The name of Dr. Gerard John Schutts also appears in 1730. 
Nothing of him is known. At this period New York was settled 
by Hollanders. Those gentlemen, and probably others, drifted 
over into New Jersey from the Island of Manhattan. 

, WILLIAM BARNET 

was an Mizabethtown physician in 1770. Dr. Bamet built and 
11 



82 MEDICAL SOCIETY OF NEW JERSEY. 

lived in the house which was owned and occupied by the late Gen. 
Scott. His house was repeatedly sacked by the British during 
the Revolutionary war. He once saved his life, which was eagerly 
sought, by concealment in his bam. He died December 1st, 1790, 
aged 65 years. He introduced vaccination into Elizabethtown. 
He vaccinated Miss Jelf, who lives in Elizabeth, a relative of Dr. 
Chetwood, now over 101 years old. She says that he was a jovial 
man, and that he had a very large practice. The large ancient 
willows in front of the General Scott place, originated in some 
slips brought from France by Dr. Barnet's nephew, and which 
were set out by the Doctor personally. 

PAUL MICHLAU 

joined the State Medical Society in 1772. He practiced in Ehza- 
bethtown. The following is a copy of one of his bills : 
Benj. Winans, Sr., 

To Paul Michlau, Dr. 
1790. 

July 15 — To blistering Plaister, - - 2s 
Extract of Saturn, oz. i. . - 2s 
Turner's Cerate, oz. i. - - 6s 
Peruvian Bark, oz. ii. - - 6d 

Calomel Pills, No. 40, - - 10d-£l 6 
" 15 — To dressing 3s, 20th. dressing 3s, - 6 
" 22 — Dressing 3s, 23d, dressing, 3s - - 6 
" 26 — Extract of Saturn, oz. 2s, 24th, dressing 3s 5 
Aug. 5 — Dressing 3s, an issue 6s, 7th, dressing 3s 12 
" 15 — To a blistering plaster 2s, extract of Sa- 
turn oz. i. 2s, Turner's Cerate, oz. ii, 2s 6 
" 20 — ^Peruvian Bark, oz. 2, 6s, Calomel Pills, 
No. 40, 10s, Glauber Salts, oz. 2, 4s, 
18th, dressing, 3s, - - - 13 
<i u — Dressing 3s, 22d, dressing 3s, 29th, dress- 
ing 3s, a large blister plaster 4s, - 13 



HISTORY OP ESSEX DISTRICT MEDICAL SOCIETY. 83 

Aug. 30 — Dressing 3s, Sept. 1, dressing 3s, an issue 

4s, ■ - - - . • 10 

" 31 — Dressing 3s, dressing 3s, - - - 6 

A decoction of Peruvian Bark, 8s, 8 

Dressing 3s, 17th, dressing 3s, - 6 

" 23 — Dressing 3s, decoction of 8s, expec- 
torant mixture 6s,- - - • - 17 
Dressing 3s, 27th, dressing 3s, - 6 



£7 10 

This bill amounts to $18.75. It is made in "York Shilling cur- 
rency," which has not yet fully passed out of use. The next gen- 
eration will know nothing about it. 

Dr. Michlau was the earliest to suggest the formation of our 
Society, and deserves historical remembrance. He was so unfor- 
tunate as to think in advance of his time, and was persecuted by 
those who preferred the easier method of drifting with the current. 
There were heresy hunters in that day as in this — men who belit- 
tle the science, who cramp its capabilities and retard its progress 
by opposing inquiry, not being willing to grapple with new 
methods, which do not agree with their own opinions or prejudi- 
ces. It is manifest that successive generations change little ; but 
each develop the same human nature, the same prejudices, and 
their acts are stained by the same disposition to uncharitableness. 

At a meeting of the New Jersey State Medical Society, held at 
New Brunswick November 2d, 1790, Dr. Michlau is charged 
with organizing a Society in Essex County. It is thus stated in 
the minutes : " It being represented that Dr. Michlau has taken an 
active part in designating and establishing a Society in the County 
of Essex, nexo and independent of this corporation, and the Board 
deeming his conduct as a member of this Society very reprehensible, 
order that the Secretary write to Dr. Michlau, and inclose him a 
copy of this minute, and require his attendance at the next meet- 



84 MEDICAL SOCIETY OP NEW JERSEY. 

ing to answer in the premises." We find no more in the minutes 
on the subject. 

WILLIAM TURNER. 

The oldest Newark physician of whom we find any definite 
record is William Turner. He studied medicine with Dr. N. F. 
Pigneron, a Frenchman from Province d'Artois, who settled in 
Newport, R. I., in 1690. A son and grandson of Dr. Turner, who 
was bom in Newark, became a physician and studied medicine 
with Dr. Jabez Campfield, of Morristown, N. J. Dr. Turner 
was a member of the Vestry of Trinity Church, somewhere be- 
tween 1740 and 1750- We know little more of him except that 
he had three wives, and that he thus laments in letters sculptured 
upon a tombstone in the old burying ground, the loss of the second 
wife, who died at sixteen years of age : 

" God dealeth just, none may complain. 
Though Turner's left alone again." 

JAMES FARRAND, 

from Milford, Connecticut, practiced medicine near the Stone 
Bridge, in Newark — then the court end of the tovm — ^in 1747. He 
died March 7th, 1764. We find sandwiched in at about this pe- 
riod, the names of 

EDWARD PIGOT AND SAMUEL JOHNSON. 

The latter died August 7th, 1770, aged 36 years. We only know 
that they practiced medicine in Newark. 

DR. DEANCY 

is a name that appears in 1748, among our early Newark physi- 
cians. 

We now get nearer the period of definite record. 

JOHN GRIFFITH 

practiced medicine in Rahway at the time of the formation of the 



HISTORY OP ESSEX DISTRICT MEDICAL SOCIETY. 85 

New Jersey State Medical Society. He took an active part in the 
organization of the Society. He was elected President in 1790. 

Cotemporaneous with Dr. Uzal Johnson, in the earlier part of 
his practice in Newark, we find 

THOMAS GRIFFITH, 

the son of Dr. John Griffith, of Rahway. He preceded his 
brother-in-law, Dr. Abraham Clark, who married his sister Lydia, 
the eldest daughter of Dr. John Griffith, of Eahway. He was also 
a brother of Judge William Griffith, of Burlington. He was bom 
in 1765. He seems to have been a man below the medium height — 
about that of your historian — although stouter. He was the prin- 
cipal physician of the village of Newark. In 1787 it had about 
two thousand inhabitants. He was elected a member of the State 
Society in 1787. We have met a man whom he inoculated for 
small-pox in childhood. He lived in a very low two-story stone 
house, which, at his death became the property of Caleb S. Riggs, 
Esq. Mr. Riggs built a house on the site, which was afterwards 
remodeled for a residence by the late Hon. William Wright, and 
is now occupied by his son, Edward Wright, Esq., and is situated 

! at the head of Park Place. 

I He died at Elizabethtown December 11th, 1799, at the 

age of 34. Rev. Drs. Ogden and McWhorter officiated at his fu- 
neral. He is spoken of as "universally regretted,'' as " liberal," a 
I" kiud physician, an eminent surgeon," as modest and retiring in 
his manners, and as a " great loss to the community." 
During the ante-revolutionary and the revolutionary period, 

' those of whom we have the fullest record, and who seemed to have 

' filled a large place in their day and generation, were John Condit, 
William Burnet, Jacob Ogden, William Barnet, Robert Hals ted, 
Caleb Halsted, Bernard Budd, Isaac Morse and Matthias Pierson. 

JACOB OGDEN 

was bom in Newark in 1721. He married here, but moved at 
length to Jamaica, Long Island, where he lived to the age of 59, 



86 MEDICAL SOCIETY OF NEW JERSEt. 

and attained considerable professional reputation. It is said of 
him that " he was a bold supporter of inoculation, and early dis- 
covered the value of calomel in the .diseases incident to our cli- 
mate.*' He published a paper in 1769, and another in 1774, on 
"malignant sore throat distemper," which were considered the 
best treatises on that subject then published. Dr. John Francis, 
of New York, said of him, that he " was entitled to the honor of 
being the first in the United States to whom may be attributed the 
frequent use of mercury in the class of inflammatory diseases." 
He moreover said of him: " At a time when medicine in this coun- 
try was obscured by prejudice, encumbered with forms, and 
shrouded in mystery, he thought and acted for himself, and 
proved by a long course of success, that he was not only an origi- 
nal thinker, but a sagacious observer." 

ICHABOD BURNETT, 

a Scotchman, was the father of Dr. William Burnett, of whom we 
shall have more to say directly. He practiced medicine in Eliza- 
beth in 1774, and died at the age of 90. The following is a copy 
of one of his bills : 

Robert Hais, 

To ICHABOD Burnett, Dr. 
1774. June 25. 

To bals sulpher, for Printis, - £046 

Before to 3 doses pill Puobos - - 4 6 

To one vial of Bitters, - - - 3 



£0 12 

WILLIAM BURNET 

was born December 2, (old style) 1730. The old homestead still 
stands in a dilapidated condition at the corner of Washington and 
Spruce streets, in Newark, N. J. He is said to have been descended 
from the Bishop of Salisbury. He entered the service at the com- 
mencement of the Revolutionary war, and served his country with 



HISTORY OP ESSEX DISTRICT MEDICAL SOCIETY. 87 

distinguished ability and honor to its end. The " Ward U. S. Hos- 
pital'^ is not the first Government Hospital which was established in 
Kewark. Dr. Burnet was the superintendent of the U. S. Hospital 
in Newark in 1775. In 1776-7 he took a seat in the Continental 
Congress. He was appointed Physician and Surgeon General of 
the Eastern District, (an office created in part for him,) which po- 
sition he filled with distinguished ability till the restoration of 
peace in 1783. He was present at the first meeting of the Medi- 
cal Society of New Jersey, and took an active part in its organ- 
ization. Dr. Burnet was elected President of the Society in 1767, 
and again in 1786. He delivered two addresses before the Society, 
one on " the origin, antiquity, dignity and usefulness of the science 
of medicine ;" another on " the nature and importance of the heal- 
ing art, the necessity of our indefatigable researches after medical 
knowledge, together with a few observations on the eflFect of opium 
in the cure of dysentery." 

JOHN CONDIT 

the great progenitor of the Condits, was a Welchman. He emi- 
grated from England in 1678, and inmiediately settled in Newark. 
His son, Peter Condit, came with him. He married and settled in 
the " Newark Mountains," now Orange. From him has descended 
all of the name in the United States. 

Samuel Condit, first, was the son of Peter Condit. He settled 
in Orange, while part of the family settled in or near Morristown. 
He was born December 6, 1696. 

Samuel Condit, second, the father of Dr. John Condit, was born 
in Orange, January 13, 1729. His son John, the subject of our 
historical sketch, was born in Orange, July 8, 1755. He was Col- 
onel in the Revolutionary army at twenty years of age. He be- 
came a ripe classical scholar, and although a diffident speaker, and 
not skilled in debate, he obtained the confidence of JeflFerspn, Mad- 
ison and Gallatin, and of his constituents during a long period of 
political life. He participated in the battles of White Plains and 
Long Island. 



88 MEDICAL SOCIETY OP NEW JERSEY. 

He was the father of the late Hon. Silas Condi*., of Newark, and 
uncle of Rev. J. B. Condit, D. D., of Auburn Theological Seminary. 
Doctor Condit entered the profession at an early age. For some 
years previous to entering public life, at the age of forty, he was 
engaged in very extensive practice in Orange. His circuit em- 
braced the whole county, and extended into the adjacent counties. 
He kept many horses and was perpetually on the road. He en- 
joyed the unlimited confidence of the whole community. At about 
forty years ol age he became a member of the New Jersey Legis- 
lature. He then entered Congress and continued for thirty years. 
He was both officer and surgeon during the Revolutionary war, 
holding the rank of Colonel. He was brave. At an action on 
" Battle Hill," which is now included in Greenwood Cemetery, our 
troops were driven by the British. Dr. Condit perceiving a 
wounded neighbor, seized him and bore him, amid a galling fire 
from the enemy, to a swamp, which he crossed, and afterwards 
swam the Gowanus creek, and deposited the man in a place of 
security. He was very fond of horses, and frequently rode an ani- 
mal which none but himself and the groom could venture to mount. 
When his father died he was on Long Island with the army. It 
required several days to steal his way among the woods so as to 
avoid the Hessians. He persisted, however, and he ascended the 
hill just in time to meet the funeral procession which bore his 
father's remains to their last resting place, in the old Orange grave 
yard. This fact affords us some glimpse of the privations of our 
forefathers in the great Revolutionary struggle. 

He was full six feet high and well-proportioned, consequently 
he was a large man. He is spoken of as '' handsome,'^ " fine-look- 
ing,'' and by some as a noble-looking man. He had dark hair and 
eyes, in common with most of his descendants. He was very affable 
and courteous, and seems to have been universally respected and 
beloved. It is said that there were enough of uncollected accounts 
on his books to have afforded, if made available, a fortune for a man 
in those days. He voted in the United States Senate for the war 



HISTORY OP ESSEX DISTRICT MEDICAL SOCIETY. 89 

of 1812. He served for a time as Assistant Collector of the Port 
of New York, and was stationed at Jersey City, when it was under 
the jurisdiction of the New York Collector. He was not a speaker. 
His sound good sense and sterling integrity seem to have secured 
his success. 

The following epitaph, copied from his tomb-stone, succinctly 
sums up the prominent incidents of his career : 

" Sacred to the memory of Doctor John Condit, a patriot Soldier 
and Surgeon during the struggle of his country for freedom ; a 
member of the New Jersey Legislature, and a Representative and 
Senator in the Congress of the United States for thirty years in 
succession. His honors were awarded him by grateful constitu- 
ents for his sound and vigorous intellect, stern integrity, and un- 
wavering patriotism, in times of peril, and throughout a long life. 
On the 4th of May, 1834, he died in Christian hope, revered, re- 
spected, and beloved by all who knew him, aged 79 years." 

Three of his name and lineage succeeded him. 

CHARLES CONDIT 

was the youngest son of Joseph Condit, and a nephew of Hon. Silas 
Condit. He was born in Orange in 1804, and died August 8, 1832, 
at the age of 28 years. He is spoken of as an amiable and excel- 
lent young man. He had a pleasing address and literary taste. 
He was a graduate of Princeton College. He was a student of Dr. 
William Pierson, Sr., and afterwards his partner. He practiced 
medicine in Orange, and a brilliant career seemed to open before 
Mm, when pulmonary disease brought him to an untimely grave. 

ENOS CONDIT 

was the son of Moses Condit. He was bom in Orange, and studied 
medicine in New York, where he practiced a few years, and came 
back to Orange to die. 

JOHN 8. CONDIT 

was the nephew of John Condit, and a son of the late Hon. Silas 
12 



90 MEDICAL SOCIETY OP NEW JERSEY. 

Condit. He was born in 1801. He died April 7, 1848, at the age 
of 47. In a sermon delivered in the Second Presbyterian Church in 
Newark, April 7, 1848, he is spoken of as a "highly respected fel- 
low-citizen, who was passing the meridian of his days with a vig- 
orous step." He was a graduate of Princeton College in 1817. 
He studied law with the late Hon. Theodore Frelinghuysen, and 
afterwards medicine. He was a member successively of the As- 
sembly and Senate of New Jersey. " Purity of private character, 
strong sense of moral obligations," are terms applied to him by a 
discriminating friend. He is spoken of as a man of " strong moral 
convictions." 

The late venerable, excellent, and distinguished physician and 
Congressman, Lewis Condict, of Morristown, who had three sons 
who were physicians, Silas, Nathan and Lewis, Jr., descended from a 
collateral branch of the family. They are said to have adhered to 
the ancient mode of spelling their names. 

At the time with which your historian is now dealing, Newark 
was tributary to Elizabeth, and that village was included in the 
** Elizabethtown grants," which were settled by the immigrants 
with Carteret. There were few physicians, and they were fre- 
quently found in every portion of an extended region. The names 
©f Doctors John 0. Budd, John Dorsey, and Isaac Morse, loom up 
from this period. There were none who did not know them, and 
did not value their professional opinions. 

ISAAC MORSE 

descended from a noble ancestry, and left behind successors who 
have sustained the name. His parents were Quakers. His ances- 
tor, Robert Morse, arrived in Boston before 1644. His son Robert 
the second, was bom in the Elizabethtown grants. His son Robert, 
the third, was the grandfather of Dr. Isaac Morse. His fiither, 
Joseph Morse, was born at Elizabeth in 1709, and died in 1779. 

Dr. Isaac Morse was bom at Rahway, August 5, 1758, and died 
at Elizabeth July 23, 1825. He was a short, stout man, with a 



HISTORT OP ESSEX DISTRICT MEDICAL SOCIETT. 91 

partially bald head. He was a man of " bonne homme," His face 
almost constantly wore a smilei His society was universally court- 
ed. While he was overflowing with mirthfulness he had courage, 
firmness, constancy and perseverance. 

He had an original method of dealing with his neighbors. Re- 
turning late one night from visiting a patient, he saw a neighbor 
helping himself from his wood pile. Picking up a large stick he 
followed him, and when he deposited his stolen armful of wood, 
the Doctor threw down his stick, saying, " there is a back-log for 
you." He saved his wood afterwards. 

His jokes were never malevolent. His love of fun was evi- 
dently bom in him. He was a student of Dr. William Barnet. 
Passing through the kitchen he saw the cook making dumplings. 
He went into the oflSce and provided himself with something, (our 
informant says quicksilver,) which he put covertly into the dumpi- 
lings, which caused them to jump out of the pot. The woman ran 
into the office to Dr. Barnet, and called him into the kitchen in 
great alarm. The Doctor said, « whereas that Quaker devil Isaac ? 
this is some of his work." Young Morse was not far oflF, watching 
the denouement, and laughing heartily over his success. 

In later years, meeting an old female friend of his wife in New 
York, he told her his wife had become very deaf, and returning 

home he told his wife that Mrs. , who would come over to see 

her, was totally deaf. He managed to be present at their meeting, 
and to see them bawl at each other, till one said, " Do not speak 
80 loud, I am not deaf, if you are." Mrs. Morse looked around for 
the Doctor, whom she saw laughing immoderately, and the whole 
truth was revealed. 

Some pigs troubled him by getting into his enclosure one Sab- 
bath morning ; he tied them in a row by their tails to the fence, so 
that they should scream in full chorus as the owner and his family 
came from church. 

A neighbor caught some fine shoats belonging to the Doctor on 
his premises and killed them. He then sent word to the Doctor 



92 MEDICAL SOGIETT OF NEW JEBSET. 

to come and bring them home, which he accordingly did. " The 
whiriigigs of time bring their revienges." One day this neigh- 
bor's pigs came into his lot. Their owner was ill. The Doctor 
ordered them put in a wagon, and he accompanied them to the 
house. Meeting the neighbor, he said, " I have brought your pigs 
home ; I found them in my lot." He replied, " Dead of course, I 
suppose." " Oh I no. They are all right." He told his man to 
put them in the pen. " Oh ! no," says the resolute Doctor, " I 
want hammer and nails ; I shall put them in myself, and in such a 
manner that they will not again escape." He did as he promised, 
and came back and reported the pigs securely penned. He had 
no better neighbor than this afterwards. 

There was a hole in his crib. From this hole, com was evi- 
dently abstracted. He put a fox trap inside the crib opposite the 
hole, and in a few days, going out to his stable, he saw one of his 
neighbors standing by the hole. He pretended not to see him 
and passed on to the stable. Returning he asked his neighbor to 
come in to breakfast. After jesting with him awhile he quietly 
released him without a word of comment. He did not lose any 
more com, although he did not repair the breach in the corn crib. 

Passing a poor man's field, he observed that he was sewing tim- 
othy grass seed in the Ml. The Doctor said, " Why not sow wheat 
and have both wheat and grass ?" He said, " I have no wheat." 
" Have you not oats ?" " Yes." ." Well, sow them, then." The 
man did as the Doctor suggested. The night following the Doctor 
ordered his colored man to put a bag of wheat and a harrow in the 
wagon. He followed the load, and during the night sowed the 
poor man's field with wheat and harrowed it in. He kept the se- 
cret, and enjoyed the man's satisfection of geeing an elegant crop 
of spring wheat, when he had planted no wheat. The fact of his 
poverty and his enjoyment of observing his astonishment fully re- 
paid our kind hearted and facetious physician. 

He was once called to see a patient, Mr. Rivers, the hotel keeper, 
who was hypochondriac. As soon as he came in the patient ex- 



HISTORY OP ESSEX DISTRICT MEDICAL SOCIETY. 93 

claimed, « Doctor, you have come too late ; • I am dead." The Doc- 
tor immediately went out. When asked after his patient, he said, 
"He is dead." It was soon universally reported. The Doctor 
was asked what he meant ; he replied, " He surely is dead, I had 
it from his own mouth" He did not die then. 

When asked in court what passed professionally between Dr. 
Chetwood and himself, he replied, " If I should tell all that passed 
professionally between us, the whole county would be in an up- 
roar." He would say no more. 

Sitting at a tavern in Elizabeth, a neighbor ran in crying, 
" Doctor, your mill is on fire." The Doctor, without rising, said, 
" Landlord, give that man a glass of grog, he must be tired from 
running." The Doctor then resumed the conversation, well know- 
ing that as the mill was three miles oflF, it would be burned up be- 
fore he could get there. 

A sloop was loaded with hay half-mast high, going from " Morse's 
MiU" to New York. She got foul of an English vessel. The Cap- 
tain cried out, " Cut the infernal Yankee shallop's rigging and let 
her drift." The Doctor, who was on board, called to his colored 
man to give him a firebrand. Mounting the hay, he cried out in a 
loud tone, " I will fire the hay." Said the frightened Englishman, 
«We shall drift down to Hell Gate." Said the Doctor, "You 
shan't stop at the gates of hell if you cut one of my ropes." 
The ropes were not cut. The Doctor was invited on board the 
English vessel and treated. When asked if there were any more 
like him, he replied, " I am not a circumstance to our people gen- 
erally." They were delighted with his promptitude and heroism. 

He owned a useless slave, Pete, who went oflF in one of William 
Gibbons' steamers. He sued Gibbons and recovered $300. He 
told Gibbons afterwards that if he brought him back he would sue 
him for $300 more. Said Mr. Gibbons, ** Did you not want him ?" 
" No, I offered him $20 to run away and never come back." 

Although a very accomplished scholar, and a charming and in- 
telligent companion, ever welcome in all circles, Dr. M. was so 
fond of practical jokes, that he was not unfrequently rude. 



94 MEDICAL SOCIETY OP NEW JERSEY. 

When the late Rf^v'. John McDowel, D. D., came to Elizabeth- 
town to settle, he was very desirous to meet Dr. Morse, who was 
not less anxious to meet the new pastor. Some weeks elapsed be- 
fore the Doctor drove up to the village, in consequence of his being 
engaged in rebuilding his tide-mills burned by the English, some 
distance below the village. One day he drove up to Gen. Dayton's 
store with his sulky filled by a cask, which he deposited upon the 
stoop. As he entered, he was introduced to Rev. Dr. McDowel, 
to whom he remarked : " My wife is dying. I have come to get 
some rum; we are going to have a dam frolic." With a 
sober face and no ftirther remark, he walked into the back room, 
followed by Mr. Dayton, who said, « How could you speak so to 
our new minister?" He replied, " It is quite true ; my wife is 
dyeing some yam, and we expect to have a dam frolic to-morrow 
when we raise the new dam at my mills." Com huskings, raisings, 
apple-cuttings, where pot-pie and milk were dispensed, were com- 
mon in those days. Rev. Dr. McDowel readily forgave Dr. M., 
for he always invited him to his house when he desired to particu- 
larly entertain his friends from New York. On one occasion, 
coming out after dinner at the clergyman's house, he met two of 
his elders. He told them to " hurry into the house, for the pastor 
was drinking like a beast." They went in, talked with the pastor, 
and took a glass of wine with him, as was the custom in those days, 
and finally told him why they came. The Rev. Dr. laughed, and 
said " that it was one of Morse's jokes." Coming out they again 
met Dr. M., and asked him what he mednt. He had just driven 
up in his sulky, covered with mud, from a visit to a patient. 
Having quietly tied his horse, he turned coolly to his querists and 
said, " I told you that Dr. McDowel was drinking like a beast, 
and so he was, for a beast never drinks more than he wants, which 
was exactly tme of him." 

Stories of his management of hypochondriacs, his practical jokes, 
his witty sayings, and his facetious acts, full of humor, always kind 
in intent if apparently harsh, could be multiplied to any extent. 



HISTORY OF ESSEX DISTRICT MEDICAL SOCIETY. 96 

MATTHIAS PIERSON, 

a cotemporary ot Dr. John Condit, was born in Orange, June 20th, 
1734, where he spent his life in the practice of medicine, and died 
May 9th, 1808. 

ISAAC PIERSON, 

his son, cotemporary and successor, was born in Orange, August 
15th, 1770. He was an intimate friend and classmate of Dr. 
David Hosack, of New York. He was an alumnus of Nassau 
Hall, Princeton, a Fellow of the College of Physicians tod Surgeons, 
and in 1827 was President of the Medical Society of New Jersey, 
He was a successftd practitioner of medicine for forty years in 
Orange. He was a member of the XXth and XXIst Congress of 
the United States. He was the father of our venerable associate, 
Dr. William Pierson, Sr., who is glad to share the mantle with his 
son, Dr. William Pierson, who will probably secure the succession 
for at least another generation. Except in the case of Dr. John 
C. Budd, who was the son of Dr. Berne Budd, and the father of 
Dr. Berne W. Budd, and the grandfather of Professor Charles 
Budd and Dr. Berne Budd, of New York, none of whom we have 
record, can boast of so long a medical ancestry. 

The house is now standing on Main street, Orange, which was 
successively occupied by Drs. Matthias, Isaac and William Pierson. 

CYRUS PIERSON, 

a brother-in-law of Isaac Pierson, was bom in South Orange. He 
was an alumnus of Nassau Hall, Princeton. He practiced medi- 
cine in Orange, Woodbridge, Caldwell and in Newark. While in 
Newark he was a partner of Dr. Samuel Hays, and they had an 
office where is now the " Kremlin Block." He died in Newark, 
October 7th, 1804, in the 47th year of his age. 

ASA HILLYER, 

son of Rev. Asa Hillyer, D. D., and a brother-in-law of Dr. Wm. 
Pierson, Sr., was a grandson of a surgeon in the Revolutionary 



96 MEDICAL SOCIETY OP NEW JERSEY. 

war. He practiced medicine in Elizabeth. He died October 
13th, 1824, at the age of 33. He was a graduate of Princeton 
and a member of our Society. 

WILLIAM ELLISON 

was a highly respectable practitioner of Paterson ; further than 
that we are unable to learn. 

JOHN BtJDD 

was an English surveyor for the " Lord Proprietors." The title of 
Powles Hook, at Jersey City, and most of " German Valley," in 
Morris County, was in him. Besides, he owned other large tracts 
of land. He established the homestead in Chatham, where Mr. 
John Budd now resides, and represents i\iQ fifth generation which 
have occupied one house. John Budd arrived at Burlington, New 
Jersey, in 1678. Our interest in him, however, is in the fact that 
he was progenitor of a long line of physicians who have been emi- 
nent in every generation. In this respect, the Budd family are 
pre-eminent in our record. 

BERNARD BUDD 

appears the first on the roll of fourteen who formed the New Jer- 
sey Medical Society in 1766. He was a surgeon in the Revolu- 
tionary army. The house is still standing in Springfield in which 
he amputated the leg of a British officer, wounded in the " battle 
of Springfield." The house was saved for the protection of this 
officer when the village was burned. We know little more of Dr. 
Budd than that he was one of the most accomplished surgeons ot 
his day. 

JOHN C. BUDD 

succeeded his father, in what relation of time we are not informed. 
He was born at Morristown, N. J., May 26th, 1762. He died 
January 12th, 1845, at the age of 82. He was a student of Dj^. 
John Condit, of Orange. He was a man of medium height, stout, 



HISTORY OP ESSEX DISTBICT MEDICAL SOCIETY. 97 

had a large head, and was inclined to be bald. He was perfectly 
erect at 83 years of age. He had a pleasing, cheerful face, and 
langhed easily. He was careless in dress and in his business habits. 
He naturally preferred fun to business, still he was a good practi- 
tioner. His humane disposition rendered him a faithful physician, 
and his fine abilities and power of observation a skillful one. He 
was very fertile in resources, as was evidenced by the following 
characteristic incident : 

He had the reputation in those far-oflF witch-burning times of 
being able to raise the devil. It is said he had something 
to do with the " Morristown Ghost" — but not discreditably, which 
created so much excitement, in 1778, and some years after. 

A man came to his house one evening and told him that he had 
understood that he could raise the devil, and that he desired to 
see him. The Doctor generally had a benevolent motive in his 
jokes. He knew that this man beat his wife and abused his fami- 
ly. He determined immediately on giving him a lesson. He told 
his black man, who was in the. habit of personating the devil by 
means of a cow's hide and horns and hoofs, and a clanking chain, 
to prepare himself. When he thought him ready, he told his neigh- 
bor to walk three times around the barn, repeating, " If there is 
any devil, let him come forth!" This phrase was common in that 
superstitious age, when the devil was to be defied. The third 
time he heard the clanking chain, and also heard upon a huge flat 
rock the noise of hoofs. Directly he saw the horns, when he be- 
came pale with terror. The pretended devil said, " What do you 
want?" He was too much alarmed to reply, when the horns and 
hoofs rejoined, " I will let you up this time ; but if you ever strike 
your wile again, I will appear without calling 1" He sobbed 
out a promise of good behavior, and sinking down with aflFright, 
was assisted by the Doctor into the house. He would not leave 
the house until the next day, when he departed, protesting that he 
would never call out the devil again, and he became afterwards, 
it is said, a model husband. 
13 



\ 



V 

\ 



98 MEDICAL SOCIETY OP NEW JERSEY, 

On one occasion, the Doctor was frightened by his own devil. 
He had been np to the '* Short Hills " to visit some patients, and 
was returning home at midnight, when he saw a light at Mrs. Day's 
tavern, in Chatham, immediately this side of the Passaic river. 
Stopping in he learned that a large card party persisted in contin- 
uing the game, while Mrs. Day and her son John wished to " shut 
up." He went in and expostulated with the surly gamblers. They 
only responded that he aflforded an example of " Satan reproving 
sin." He told them that if they did not break up, he should not 
wondpr if the devil appeared to them. After several attempts to 
dislodge them, he determined on a mode of procedure. On the 
floor, asleep, in the bar-room, he found several chimney sweep 
boys on their way home from New York, to spend the Sabbath. 
He selected one of the smallest, and accoutered him with a fresh 
cow's hide which hung over a beam in the bam — they had happened 
to kill that very day. Attached to the hide were the horns and 
hoofs of the animal. To his body he aflSxed some trace chains. 
Having sent John Day into the room to put a pail of water on the 
fire, with the declaration that if they did not go home they should 
have no fire, the boy was sent up one of the ample fire-places, directed 
to display his horns and hoofs and chains from the junction 
of the chimney down into the room of the card players. The 
Doctor was so intent upon the game, that the appearance of the 
little representative devil with his hoofs, horns and chains tumbling 
down in the ashes, (for the flue was too hot for him to carry out the 
Doctor's plans,) frightened the Doctor as well as the card party. 
They dropped the cards, and by moans of the doors and windows 
escaped from the room, except two, who were too frightened to 
run. The Doctor recovered from his alarm, and put his devil out 
of sight, cleared the house, and gave the boy the dollar he had 
promised him. 

The minister of Chatham prepared a sermon upon the appear- 
ance of the devil to the Sabbath breakers. Dr. Budd prevented its 
delivery. The event caused much excitement, and a religious in- 
terest grew out of it, and many were added to the church. 



HISTOBY OP ESSEX DISTBICT MEDICAL SOCIETY. ^9 

We were told by the late Dr. Beme JBudd, of New York, the 
son of Dr. John C. Budd, of one occasion when " Greek met Greek.'' 
Dr. Budd said that one summer's day he was standing with his 
father in his yard, when Dr. Morse drove up to the fence in his 
sulky, and called out in a loud tone of voice, " Budd, whose wheat 
field is that back of the other road ?" My father replied (as Morse 
expected) " That's mine." " Well," said Dr. M., " you might as 
wen drive those cows out." Well, the men and dogs were as- 
sembled, the field visited, but, of course, no cows were there. In 
a joke Dr. Budd did not allow himself to be outdone ; so, says our 
relator, when Dr. Morse came back he found my father seated on 
a rock in the garden, with a white hankerchief tied conspicuously 
about his jaws, and feigning the most severe distress. Dr. M. called 
out from the road, " What' is the matter ?" My father beckoned him 
over ; on reaching him he sent him back for his turnkey, which 
was inside his sulky box. He made him tie his bandanna hand- 
kerchief about it, and after detaining him with pretended dread of 
the pain for about half an hour, he opened his mouth, when no 
teeth were there I My father had been toothless for years. Dr. 
M. demanded impatiently, "Where have your teeth all gone?" 
Dr. B. instantly replied, " Gone to drive those cows out of the wheat 
field!" 

Dr. Budd had two fiimous prescriptions ; one he called his THnc- 
ture Botanoe, the other his Diabolical Pills. " The first," he said, 
" I give when 1 do not know what else to do, for it is emmenagogue, 
sedative^ cathartic^ tonic and expectorant, and cannot fail to hit 
somewhere.^^ 

BEBNE BUDD 

once practiced medicine in Newark with his fether, Dr. John C. 
Budd. They lived at the stone house at* the comer of High and 
Orange streets. He was well known to your historian. He was 
a stout man, of vigorous intellect, of studious habits, and kept up 
with the progress of medical literature even to advanced age, He 



100 MEDICAL SOCIETY OP NEW JEBSET. 

died within a few years, aged about 65, at his house in Eighteenth 
street. New York. He leaves behind him two sons, who inherit 
all the excellencies of the antecedent medical generations, and who 
have already become eminent physicians. 

CHARLES BUDD, 

of New York, is the eminent Professor of Obstetrics, in the Medi- 
cal Department of the New York University. 

BERNE BUDD, 

in his own speciality, that of Chemistry, is, perhaps, not less known. 
In ante-Revolutionary times, probably considerably after Dr. 
Burnet, although perhaps cotemporaneous in his later years, and 
antecedent to Dr. Williams, of whom we shall learn directly, 
we place the Doctors Halsted. They were settled, the one in 
Elizabeth, and the other in Connecticut Farms. They bridge over 
a period extending down to the ken of the present generation. 

ROBERT HALSTED 

was the elder. He was bom September 13, 1746, and died aged 
about seventy years. He was serious, and, by some, is spoken of 
as stern. He was by all respected. He was a leading man in his 
day. 

He was a patriot. This generally means nothing. It is a word 
used to finish a sentence, or to apply to a man of whom there is 
little to say. In that day it meant something. It meant con- 
tumely, reproach, suflFering, imprisonment, death. Dr. H. was a 
man of settled, definite opinions — ^would God there were more 
such men in these days. Of course, in Revolutionary times, he be- 
came a marked man. 

" There's a warfare, where none but the morally brave 
Stand nobly and firmly their country to save." 

A notorious tory of 1776 informed against him, and he was 
lodged in the " Old Sugar House" in Liberty street, in New 



HISTOBY OP BSSfiX DtSTRlCt MfiDlCAL SOCIETY. 101 

York. Like Doctors of every period, he was too loyal to take a 
doubtful position. We record with pride, that among those whose 
life work it has been our duty to estimate and record, but one ex- 
ception has been discovered. Dr. H. never forgave the traitorous 
neighbor who accomplished his imprisonment, and no man ever 
had more occasion to be permanently oflFended. It is a blessed 
feet, however, that the enmities of one generation seldom are per- 
petuated in the next. 

While our army lay at " New Point," about one mile east of the 
present " Old Perry Landing" at Elizabethport, news came that 
the Hessians had effected a landing about one mile above. Col. 
Aaron Ogden, an ancestor of ours, notwithstanding the intense 
darkness of the night, determined upon a " reconnoisance." He 
mounted his favorite young, black, blood mare, and proceeded on- 
wards. He discovered by the " bayonets' gleam" that he was 
" among the Hessians." He instantly wheeled his mare and es- 
caped. While in the act, he received a bayonet in his side, to 
avoid which he had thrown himself over, quite on the side of the 
animal, in Indian style. The night was too dark to see the direc- 
tion of his escape, or he would probably have shared the fate of 
our lamented Kearney. 

On reaching camp Dr. Halsted was called. He could not de- 
termine how far the instrument had penetrated the body. He 
frankly told him so, and assured him that his life depended upon 
absolute quiet. The Colonel recovered. It is remarkable how 
precisely this incident is like that which caused the death of Gen. 
Kearney. The reconnoissance alone — ^his discovering Himself in 
the midst of the enemy — his wheeling his black, blood horse for an 
escape. To this point the parallel is perfect — but for that fatal bul- 
let it would have been complete. 

CALEB HALSTED 

was a younger brother. He was born in Elizabeth, September 15, 
1752, and died August 18, 1827, at the age of seventy-five years. 



102 HEDIOAL SOCIETY OF mw JEESEY. 

Like his brother, he was an eminent physician. He was a man 
of medium size, of cheerfiil temper, and of large benevolence. He 
had a round, pleasant face, was accessible and genial, and made 
many personal friends. 

July 15, 1825, while confined to his house by ilhiess, he received 
a visit from and entertained General Lafayette. He was traveling 
from Morristown under the conduct of the late General Andruss, 
the father-in-law of the late Dr. Jabez G. Goble. 

During the French revolution many of the nobility came to this 
country, and settled in and about Elizabeth. Most of these fami- 
lies were under the professional care of Dr. 0. Halsted, notwith- 
standing he lived at Connecticut Farms, and at some distance jfrom 
Elizabethtown. 

WILLIAM HALSTED 

was the nephew of Doctors Robert and Caleb, and uncle of our 
venerable ex-Charicellor Halsted. He practiced medicine for some 
time in Newark. In his earlier years he was a very promising 
man, and is said to have been the most talented of the family, but 
a fall from his horse, injured him to such a degree that he was tre- 
phined, and ever after he was subject to attacks of derangement. 
He died at about forty years of age. 

Dr. Thaddeus Halsted (who lived one year recently in Orange,) 
of New York city, is a grandson of the late Dr. Robert Halsted. 
He is a distinguished physician. He is one of the Consulting Sur- 
geons at the New York City Hospital. He is an alumnus of 
Princeton College. 

Thus the ancestral medical fame of the family is perpetuated. 

MATTHEW C. LYON. 

During the latter part of the last century and the early part of 
the present, Dr. Matthew C. Lyon practiced medicine in Newark. 
He lived in Broad street, the second door above Court street He 
had a partner, a Dr. Halsted, who afterwards moved to New Yox-k. 
Dr. Lyon was bom March 4, 1766, and he died October 8, 1816. 



HISTORY OP ESSEX DISTRICT MEDICAL SOCIETY. 103 

His son, Dr. James L. Lyon, became a very respectable practi- 
tioner of medicine. He settled in Hudson street, in New York, 
where he died December 24, 1858. He was bom in Newark, Sep- 
tember 13, 1808. 

His son. Dr. Samuel Kuypers Lyon, is a young physician in New 
York, of much promise. He has succeeded to the practice of his 
grandfather. Dr. Kuypers, whose foiling health has led him to re- 
linquish its active duties. Thus << one generation passeth away 
and another cometh." 

GEORGE COE 

came to Orange, from Westfield, New Jersey, in 1817. He was 
the grandson of Dr. Elmer, the elder, and a business partner of 
Dr. William Pierson, Sr., in 1840. 

We regret that, with regard to some physicians, we have no 
more data. We have diligently sought for it in vain. We hope 
that this allusion may lead to a more full history of those gentle- 
men who filled a lai^e place in their time. 

Soon after the Revolutionary war, we find 

JOHN DARCY. 

He was the son of a highly respectable Morris county farmer, 
Patrick Darcy. The " Patrick" would indicate descent from the 
Emerald Isle, but some of the family write the name D'Arcy, indi- 
cating French extraction. Dr. Darcy was bom October 11, 1760, 
and died February 13, 1822. He was the cotemporary and friend 
of Doctors Morse and Budd, and had considerable reputation as a 
surgeon. He joined the State Medical Society in 1807. 

JOHN S. DARCY, 

his son, succeeded to his practice. He was bom at Hanover, Mor- 
ris county, February 24, 1788, and died at Newark, October 22, 
1863. He was a member of the State Medical Society in 1809. 
He has lived on beyond his cotemporaries, forming a link between 



104 MEDICAL BOCIETY OP NEW JERBBY. 

the past and the present generation. He removed to Newark in 
1832, and, with the exception of a year spent in California, (where 
he went by the overland route for the sake of relief from profes- 
sional labor,) he practiced medicine quite up the last few days of 
his life. Although always a leading politician, and for thirty years 
the President of the New Jersey Railroad, besides being often a 
delegate to political conventions, he was indefatigably devoted to 
his practice, which was always large, and the duties of which he 
faithfully performed. 

It aflFords peculiar pleasure to your historian to record the 
virtues of his life-long friend. He oflSciated at the point of time, 
as he is informed, upon a June day, in 1814, which ushered him 
into life, in Hanover, N. J. 

But he was everybody's friend. He was a kind friend, a genial 
companion, generous, sympathizing, true. None ever died in this 
community leaving more really attached friends. He never seemed 
old, although he died at the age of seventy-five. 

In practice he was anxious to lose no business, although careless 
in his collections. He had an inimitable tact, a " bonne homme,^^ 
and a way of making pleasing quotable assuring remarks, which 
would have secured success to any medical practitioner. He was 
a large, stout, well proportioned man, in whose countenance ten- 
derness of heart and good sense were manifest. 

His son, Henry G. Darcy, studied his father's profession, but af- 
terwards associated with his brother-in-law in mercantile pursuits. 

Doctors Dodd, Chetwood and Munn belong to the intermediate 
of our historical period. One of them lived just outside the 
boundaries, but practiced in Essex County. 

JOSEPH SMITH DODD, 

son of General John Dodd, was bom January 10, 1791, in what is 
now the township of Bloomfield: graduated at Princeton College 
in 1813; commenced the practice of medicine in his native place 



HISTORY OP ESSEX DISTRICT MEDICAL SOCIETY. 105 

in 1816, where, after thirty years of nearly uninterrupted labor in 
his profession, he died, September 5, 1847. 

He was a cotemporary of Doctors John C. Budd, Isaac Pierson, 
John Ward, Uzal Johnson, and Abraham Clark. In 1842 he 
was elected to the Council (afterwards called the Senate) of 
New Jersey, to which office, after serving one term, he was re- 
elected under the new Constitution of the State. He took, while 
in the Senate, an active and leading part in originating and estab- 
lishing the State Lunatic Asylum. He was the Chairman of the 
Committee having charge of -that subject, and his exertions greatly 
contributed to the successful inauguration of that institution. About 
this time he had become associated with Dr. Joseph A. Davis, who 
is now an eminent physician in Bloomfield, as a partner, and, with 
the gradual failure of his health, began to retire from active prac- 
tice, which, for several months prior to his death, he entirely gave 
up. He died of pulmonary disease, in the fifty-seventh year of his 
age. His father died on the same day of the same month just twen- 
ty-one years before. It is a somewhat curious fact that the occur- 
rence of his own death on that day had been anticipated and spoken 
of by him to his family and friends as probable and expected, sev- 
eral months before it occurred. 

He had a large practice, embracing the principal part of Bloom- 
field township, and extending into the townships of Livingston and 
Caldwell. His unremitting devotion to it impaired, at a compara- 
tively early age, the vigor of his constitution — never very robust — 
and contributed to bring on the disease of which he died. His 
nature was sympathetic and unselfish. His patients engaged his 
thoughts and attention in a manner that made these qualities of his 
character manifest to all who knew him. His habits of mind were 
calm, thoughtful and judicious. He was decidedly of a reflective 
cast, and evinced this in the careful and considerate treatment of 
his patients, as well as in the ordinary intercourse of life. He 
pursued, to a great degree, the expectant plan, and did not like 
the ^heroic^ treatment. The soundness of his judgment was perhaps 
14 



106 MEDICAL SOCIETY OF NEW JERSEY. 

the conspicuous feature of his character. It is a remarkable fact 
that, in a practice of thirty years, he never lost a patient in labor. 

Dr. Dodd was a man of scholarly tastes. He retained through 
life the love which, in his youth, he had for general studies, espe- 
cially the mathematical and classical. In the former he was quite 
a proficient, and indulged his fondness for them to the last. The 
singular purity and kindness of his disposition endeared him to all 
his acquaintances, and especially to the young, in whose society, 
studies and pursuits, te was ever inclined to share. Though of 
grave and dignified appearance, he had a rich vein of pleasantry 
in his composition, and was eminently agreeable in conversation 
and social life. 

In person he was tall and thin. He was an inch and a-half 
under six feet in height, and in his later years inclined to stoop. 
His features were prominent, his complexion dark, and his eyes 
large and black. 

He was a member of the Presbyterian Church ; a devout and 
thorough student of the Scriptures, with which, and the psalms and 
hymns of Watts; his memory was largely stored. 

He met death with an undisturbed Christian hope, and left be- 
hind him the influence and fruits of a pure, laborious and useful 
life. 

Dr. Dodd was the father of Amzi Dodd, Esq., of this city. 

JOHN CHETWOOD 

practiced in Elizabeth at about the same period that Dr. John Dar- 
cy practiced at Hanover. The New Jersey Historical Collections 
furnish this legend : " He fell a victim to that untiring benevo- 
lence which, for more than forty years, had marked his professional 
course. The meridian sun found him administering to the suflFer- 
ing ; the next morning^s beams fell upon his grave. < Blessed are 
the merciful, for they shall obtain mercy.' " The circumstances of 
his death were much like those of Dr. Calhoun. 

Dr. George Chetwood iumishes the following additional partic- 



HISTORY OP ESSEX DISTRICT MEDICAL SOCIETY. 107 

nlars : " My father died of cholera in August of 1832, aged sixty- 
four years. He died a martyr to his profession, having great fear 
of that disease, (which at that time was new to us all,) and believ- 
ing that he would become a victim, yet he did not hesitate to go 
both night and day, and was most attentive and devoted to every 
case to which he was called. On the morning of the day of his 
death, he told several persons that he had at that time upon him 
the premonitory diarrhoea. Notwithstanding, he continued to visit 
his patients until 11 o'clock A. M., when, unable to make any fur- 
ther effort in their behalf, he returned to his home, and died the 
same night at 8 o'clock ; exhibiting, in my view, by this course, as 
much deliberate and heroic courage as any oflScer or soldier could 
manifest upon the battle field. 

" He had a remarkably kind and genial disposition, was always 
pleasant in the presence of his patients, and his death caused many 
a heart to ache, particularly among the poorer classes of society, 
for, under all circumstances, he never refused to answer profes- 
sionally or otherwise their repeated calls." 

Thus is illustrated the heroism of the true physician — 

" Whose special function 'tis to give relief 
In the dark hours of suffering and of grief ; 
Between the living and the dead, to stand 
Where fall the shafts of death on either hand ; 
Without one thought of flight, to stiU maintain 
Perpetual battle with the Powers of Pain."* 

JEPTHA B. MUNN, 

of Chatham, Morris county, was born December 29, 1780. He 
always practiced medicine on the borders of our county, and was 
a cotemporary with Doctors Morse, Budd and Darcy. He was 
President of the State Society in 1828. One of his sons. Dr. John 
Munn, succeeds him. He has another son in the profession, Dr. 
Isaac Munn, of Brooklyn. 

♦NqTK.— " MlcrocoBm," a poem read by Dr. A. Coles, President of the New Jersey Stato 
Medical Society, at the recent Centennial Anniversary. 



108 MEDICAL SOCIETY OP NEW JERSEY. * 

In 1838 he wrote a communication to our Society, entitled " Re- 
collections of Dr. David Martin," which would be of great value 
now if it could be recovered, and probably furnish us about all that 
we can learn at this time of this once eminent and excellent physi- 
cian. 

DR. STEELE. 

The earliest Belleville physician of whom we are able to learn, 
was Dr. Steele, an Englishman. We find him there in 1812, en- 
joying the confidence of the whole community. He was abrupt in 
his manners, and kind in his nature. He was regarded as an 
excellent physician. His son, 

THOMAS STEELE, 

practiced medicine for a time with his father, and afterwards removed 
to Newark. He was the predecessor of Dr. John Ward, and con- 
tinued some time after the latter commenced practice in Newark. 
He is also spoken of as a good practitioner. 

DR. LYON, 

(not Matthew,) practiced for a while in Newark, and 

DR. LINDSLEY, 

who married his widow, succeeded him in business. 

STEPHEN B. COOK 

was bom November 22, 1790, in Troy, New Jersey; was married 
April 11, 1832, and died in Hanover, New Jersey, January 7, 
1843. He was an associate of Dr. J. S. Darcy, and on the removal 
of the latter to Newark, he succeeded to his practice, (in connec- 
tion with Dr. Kitchell) which extended to most of the adjacent 
country around Hanover. He was tall, with black eyes and hair ; 
was quiet and reserved in maimer, and was regarded as an excel- 
lent physician. 

DR. SQUIER, 

of Caldwell, was his cotemporary. He preceded Dr. Orton. 



HISTOBT OF ESSEX DISTRICT MEDICAL SOCIETT. 109 

STEPHEN GBOVER. 

We should have said before that this ground was first occupied 
by Rev. Stephen Grover, pastor of the Presbyterian Church in 
Caldwell, and grandfather of Lewis C. Grover, JEsq. Like Rev. 
Doctors Fierson, Dickinson and Darby, he ministered to both the 
bodies and souls of men. He was cotemporaneous with Doctors 
John C. Budd, John Darcy, and Henry Darby. 

In view of this record of our medical ancestors, it is manifest 
that men, like wine, need to be put away a while in vaults. The 
good improve, their faults are forgotten, and their excellencies are 
manifest. Those unworthy of record receive no benefit trom the 
lapse of time. We conclude the history of the antecedent period 
and proceed onwards. 

A GLANCE OUTSIDE. 

In order to a fuller understanding of the surroundings of our 
little band of scientific ancestors, let us take a glance outside of 
their geographical boundaries. There were in New York, bright 
progressive medical men, as, for example, Doctors Post, Hosack, 
Francis, and Mitchell, of whom John Randolph said, while they 
were together in Congress, " I never saw a man who knew so little 
of what men ought to learn, and knew so much about matters of 
what none had occasion to know." The absence of steam in 
that day placed New York, practically, at a greater distance from 
us than at the present day. 

In facetiousness and wit. Dr. John C. Budd, of the adjoining 
county of Morris, and Dr. Isaac Morse, of Elizabethtown, were 
scarcely inferior to Chapman, of Philadelphia, or Mitchell, of New 
York. 

At this time it would seem, from an item in a New York paper, 
that no Surgeon in Newark was regslrded competent to perform the 
operation of lithotomy, and that its performance by a Dr. Johnson, 
of New York, was regarded worthy of laudation by the news- 
papers of that city. 



110 MEDICAL SOCIETT OF NEW JfiBSEY. 

POBMATION OP THE DISTRICT MEDICAL SOCIETY FOB THE COUNTY 

OF ESSEX. 

This brings us to the period of the inauguration of the " Dis- 
trict Medical Society for the County of Essex, in the State of New- 
Jersey." The following is the legend : 

Tuesday, June 4th, 1816, agreeable to the appointment of the 
Medical Society of the State of New Jersey, under a late act of 
incorporation, John D. Williams, Joseph Quimby and Samuel Man- 
ning, three of the physicians and surgeons named for that purpose, 
met at the house of Moses Roff, Inn Keeper, in the town of New- 
ark, and formed themselves into a Society, under the name of the 
«< District Medical Society for the County of Essex, in the State of 
New Jersey," of which John D. Williams was chosen President, 
and Joseph Quimby Secretary. At the first meeting. Dr. Uzal 
Johnson was appointed Vice President, and Dr. Samuel Hays 
Treasurer. Drs. James Lee, Abraham Clark and John Ward 
were appointed a Committee to frame By-Laws and Regulations, 
and to report at the next regular meeting. Drs. Samuel Manning, 
Samuel Hays, Abraham Clark, John Ward and Daniel Babbitt 
were appointed Examiners for one year, and were directed to give 
public notice of the organization of the Society, of their appoint- 
ment as Examiners, and of the time and place of the next meeting 
of the Society. The Society then adjourned, again to meet in July. 

The following eleven names appear in the original organization : 

John D. Williams, James Quimby, 

Samuel Manning, James Lee, 

John Ward, Eleazer D. Ward, 

Uzal Johnson, Abraham Clark, 

Samuel L. Ward, Daniel Babbitt, 

Samuel Hays. 

The names of William Johnson and David Martin appear at the 
second meeting, (July, 1816,) one month after the preliminary 
meeting. ^ 



HISTORY OP ESSEX DISTRICT MEDICAL SOCIETY. Ill 

Otm GOLDEN WEDDING. 

One and two-thirds of a generation have now passed away. We 
come to the Golden Wedding period of our history. As upon 
these interesting occasions, we meet sometimes one or two, it may 
be, who mingled with the crowd, who assembled to salute the 
youthful bride, and now return with furrowed cheeks and silvered 
locks to renew again those congratulations, and recall for an hour 
the scenes of a far distant period, since when a panorama of 
events have passed before their vision, so have we with us two 
witnesses of the event which to-day we celebrate. 

Dr. Eleazer D. Ward, of Bloomfield, still lives. We regret to 
learn that he is feeble and decrepid. He has completed his four 
score years, which have accumulated upon him and weigh him 
down. Ere long he must follow his predecessors. 

Samuel L. Ward has passed his three score years and ten, 
but is still at his post of active usefulness. May he live to a 
ripe old age, and continue to furnish a representation of the 
founders of our Society, which to-day has reached its fiftieth anni- 



I versary. 



A LOOK AROUND BEFORE STARTING. 



Let us pause before entering upon our review of the doings of 
the Society, and consider the circumstances and surroundings of 
the little group of eleven — increased one month later to thirteen — 
who, in obedience to the mandate of the State Society, met at 
Roff's tavern, (which was a stone building near the present City 
Hall, and was the great trysting place for the entire community) 
on that morning in the summer of 1816. 

At this time there were few organized medical schools. The 
study of medicine consisted of a few months with " BelPs Anato- 
my," and " Thomas' Practice," and a few more of " riding around 
with the Doctor." There was a lack of definiteness of aim in the 
teachings and practice of the profession. Most of. those who at- 
tained eminence seem to have accomplished it rather by the force 



112 MEDICAL SOCIETY OP NEW JERSEY. 

of natural genius than by scholarly attainments. There were very 
few books to read, and very little to stimulate inquiry. Essex 
County at this time included Passaic and Union, still it did not 
probably contain more than one-tenth the number of inhabitants 
which are found in Newark to-day. Newark, itself, contained less 
than five thousand inhabitants. 

A HISTORIC PERIOD. 

The Society, which was inaugurated on that fine June morning — 
what an auspicious season to found a new institution — in that stone 
tavern in Broad street, in Newark, in 1816, has never failed to 
meet punctually. Its motto has ever been " Excelsior.'J It has 
contributed much to the advancement of medical science through- 
out the State, as well as our own community. No other County 
Society in the State has maintained its vigor so uninterruptedly. 
It has ever presented a contrast with the most favored counties in 
the States which adjoin us on every side. The gentlemen 
who constituted the germ of our Society were earnest, faith- 
fiil practitioners of medicine, as is proved by their punctual at- 
tendance and valuable papers. We observe, with regard to certain 
names, that they never fail to appear in the proceedings of every 
meeting. 

The Society was inaugurated just after our last war with Eng- 
land, and which completed the establishment of our National 
Independence. We had scarcely recovered from the Revolution- 
ary struggle — that long, dismal period of alternate hopes, and 
fears, and despondency. We who have just passed through the 
trial by fire for the perpetuation of these very principles which 
were then just established, know how to appreciate that crisis. 
That had been no time for scientific progress ; nor was the ante- 
cedent period of Colonial dependence more favorable to free in- 
quiry and scientific prosperity. Thus our Society was formed at 
just about the most desirable historic period. That among our 
eleven there should have been one " Judas," should cause some 



HISTOBY OP ESSEX DISTRICT MEDICAL SOCIETY. 113 

mitigation of our natural astonishment that during our recent strug- 
gle for national life, there should have been found any who refiised 
to sustain the country in the hour of its extremity. As at the 
first meeting of this Society, its members congratulated each other 
upon a Nation finally emancipated from foreign domination, so 
may we upon this, its fiftieth anniversary, thank God for the 
wonderful Providence which has worked out for us the miracle of 
Universal Emancipation. 

OTJB ORIGINAL CONSTITUTION. 

Having taken a glance outside, we will return to the low ceiling 
parlor of RoflF's tavern, on the occasion of the second meeting, one 
month after the organization. The Rules and Regulations adopted 
at that meeting are most excellent, and really aflForded all the 
Constitution which we need to-day. It was all that we had until 
1831, when superceded, in a measure, by some " By-Laws " then 
adopted. 

The first section declared the name of the Society. 

The second, that " the members consider themselves bound to 
act on the principles of honor in all their proceedings ; to cultivate 
friendship with one another, and to promote the interest and im- 
provement of the science of medicine." 

The third and fourth relate to the time of meeting; the fifth and 
on to eleventh, to the election and the duties of ofiBcers. 

The admission fee is to be " not less than two dollars, and the 
annual fee shall be one dollar." None could vote who were in ar- 
rears, and no answer would be given any member who applied for 
dismission, unless he produce a certificate, signed by the Treasurer, 
of his being in no arrears to the Society. 

The 13th and 14th sections provided for the substantial necessi- 
ties. None were permitted to vote unless they had paid up. 
At a later date, when your historian entered the Society, he had 
to submit to an examination — ^none were then excused — and had to 
pay fifteen dollars for the privileges the parchment conferred. 
15 



114 MEDICAL SOCIETY OP NEW JERSEY. 

The 18th section relates to the " order of business," and the 19th 
resolves to be governed by the laws of the State Society, " pro- 
vided always that the Medical Society of Xfew Jersey shall not as- 
sume any control over its funds. ^^ Our medical ancestors, from the 
very start, held the purse-strings tightly. 

The 20th and 28th sections relate to medical ethics. In order 
to exhibit their idea of the rules which should regulate the inter- 
course of physicians, and to perpetuate a few sentences which are 
terse, plain and comprehensive, and which teach^doctrines as ex- 
cellent to-day as fifty years ago, we quote : 

" Medicine being a liberal profession, its practitioners are or 
ought to be men of education, and their expectation of employment 
should be founded on their qualifications, not on artifice or insinu- 
ation. A certain indefinable species of assiduities and attentions 
therefore to families usually employing another, is to be considered 
beneath the dignity of a regular practitioner, and as making a mere 
trade of a learned profession. It evinces a meanness of disposi- 
tion to make meddling inquiries or hints concerning the nature or 
treatment of cases of sickness in such circumstances." 

But that we must be careful not to extend unnecessarily this 
paper, it would be interesting to quote three or four more sections 
relating to ethics. Enough has been given to show that medical 
proprieties have not changed in fifty years. 

SOME OP OUR EARLY TRANSACTIONS. 

At the second regular meeting in 1817, there was evidently 
some conflict of authority with the State Society. There seems to 
have been considerable feeling on the subject. Nor were the prin- 
ciples for which each contended settled as late as 1842, when the 
State Society refused to receive Dr. Waldo Brown, the regularly 
appointed delegate of the Society. In a case of discipline, the 
State Society were influenced to reverse the action of our Society. 
Still the " Essex District Society" refused to acknowledge the pro- 
cedure, or to undo or annul their acts. But these troubles ceased, 



HISTOBY OF ESSEX DISTtUCT MEDICAL SOCIETY. 115 

as power passed from the State Society in consequence of new leg- 
islative acts. 

In looking over the records, it is evident that the prosecution of 
irregulars, (in 1830 the late John P. Jackson, Esq., was employed 
by the Society for this purpose,) and the care of the library chiefly 
engaged its attention. The library was formed soon after the or* 
ganization. It afforded the members then the only mode of ob- 
taining periodical literature, and for some years was indeed very 
useful. But it soon began to be neglected. The members would 
forget to return the books taken out. In 1830 a thermometer and 
barometer were purchased, and the keeping of meteorological re- 
ports was attempted. But there seemed no man with taste and 
leisure to take hold of it. If there was (and it is quite likely that 
there was) kt did not receive the appointment of Librarian. Though 
occasionally resuscitated, it was finally sold at auction in 1866, for 
thirteen dollars, and is owned by Dr. A. N. Dougherty, of Newark, 
New Jersey. 

In 1831 new by-laws and a code of ethics were adopted. On 
Thursday, July 19, 1832, a special meeting of the Society was 
called to consider the nature and treatment of Asiatic Cholera, 
which, as is well known, prevailed that year for the first time in 
the history of this country. 

Drs. J. B. Jackson, I. M. Ward and Whitfield Nichols were ap- 
pointed a committee to investigate the facts in relation to the cases 
of the cholera which should occur in Newark, and report them to 
the public, under the sanction of the Society, if the President 
deemed it advisable. The discussion evinced a determined effort 
to grapple with the subject, and to discover, if possible, the causes 
and the proper treatment of the new disease, now, unhappily, so 
familiar to us all. This discussion is especially interesting at this 
point of time, when we expect the renewed visit of the dreaded 
pestilence. 

In 1837 Drs. S. H. Pennington and L. A. Smith presented a code 
of ethics which is very full, and which seems to provide for all 



116 ' MEDICAL SOCIETY OF NEW JERSEY. 

possible contingencies. It was adopted, and it of course super- 
seded that of 1816. 

In a historical review it is necessary to pass over many events 
of jconsiderable temporary interest, and the frequent modification 
of the by-laws and constitution, made necessary in consequence of 
changes in the legislation and of the sentiment of the public and 
the profession. 

LATER ACTS. 

August 15, 1848, a communication was received from the Morris 
District Medical Society, suggesting that the " welfare of the med- 
ical profession in New Jersey required an essential modification of 
the existing laws, which have for their object the restraining of 
illegal and irregular practitioners of the healing art." It was de- 
cided by our Society that it was undesirable at present to ask any 
modification of the present laws on this subject 

In 1854, Drs. S. H. Pennington, George Chetwood and L. A. 
Smith were appointed a committee to revise the by-laws, in refer- 
ence to the recent action of the Legislature in relation to the prac- 
tice of medicine. 

In 1857, Drs. S. H. Pennington, J. Henry Clark and H. H. 
Tichenor were given the same mission by the Society, and at the 
last meeting (1865) Drs. S. Wickes and S. H. Pennington were ap- 
pointed for the same purpose. 

We have, for the past fifteen or twenty years, been loosening 
the power and patronage which has hitherto been granted us by 
the Legislature. We are, at length, a voluntary association. 
More than ever, and for this very reason, our standard of at- 
tainments, our position and accomplishments, depend upon us alone. 
Medicine and religion have never been benefited by government 
patronage, but have been often injured by power, effeminacy and 
jealous contentions. 

In 1865, in view of the assassination of our President, a series 
of resolutions were passed, of which the following is the principal, 
drafted by Dr. S. Wickes : 



HISTORY OP ESSEX DISTRICT MEDICAL SOCIETY. 117 

" That we mingle our sorrows with those of our fellow-citizens, at 
the loss to the nation of a man of pure and honest heart — a patriot 
of the loftiest purpose — ^a ruler wise, benignant and beloved — 
* with malice towards none, and with charity towards all.' His 
administration of the government during the term of his service 
commends him to the nation and to the world, as possessed of the 
highest order of statesmanship. Amid our sorrows for his untimely 
loss, in this crisis of our national affairs, we rejoice that we may 
hand down to the fiiture the name of Lincoln, as one of the illus- 
trious names * which are not born to die.' " 

OUR PRESIDENTS. 

The following gentlemen have successively filled the office of 
President : 

1. John D. Williams, Connecticut Farms. 

2. Uzal Johnson, Newark. 

3. Isaac Pierson, Orange. 

4. William Ellison, Paterson. 

5. John Ward, Newark. 

6. Samuel Hays, Newark. 

7. William Pierson, Orange. 

8. Abraham Canfield, Newark. 

9. J. G. Goble, Newark. 

10. Cora Osborne, South Orange. 

11. Whitfield Nichols, Newark. 

12. S. E. Arms, Elizabeth. 

13. S. H. Pennington, Newark. 

14. Abraham Coles, Newark. 

15. J. Q. Stearns, Elizabeth. 

16. James Nichols, Newark. 

17. John P. Ward, Newark. 

18. A. N. Dougherty, Newark. 

19. L. A. Smith, Newark. 

20. J. S. Crane, Elizabeth. 



118 MEDICAL SOCIETT OP NEW JEBSET. 

21. Milton Baldwin, Newark. 

22. Stephen Wickes, Orange. 

23. William B. Brown, Newark. 

24. William Pierson, Jr., Orange. 

25. J. A. Corwin, Newark. 

But a single case of discipline lias occurred in a half century. 
Our medical ancestors seem to have got on harmoniously and pro- 
fitably. 

OUR SECRETARIES. 

The first Secretary was Joseph Quimby. Abraham Clark was 
elected the following year, 1817, and held the oflSce until the elec- 
tion of Jabez Goble, in 1824. The pen next fell into the hands of 
S. H. Pennington, who yielded it up in three years to Stephen 
Congar. After four years William T. Mercer was elected. Dr. 
Mercer held the office for nineteen years, until 1859. None ever 
held the office so long by many years. A. W. Woodhull was Sec- 
retary in 1859, and was succeeded by H. H. Tichenor in I860,' 
who in 1863 was succeeded by BethuelL. Dodd, and he by Dr. Ed- 
gar Holden, the present Secretary. 

OUR TREASURERS. 

There have been but six Treasurers — Samuel Hays, Abraham 
Canfield, Whitfield Nichols, A. W. Reeves, Wm. M. Brown, and 
B. P. Nichols. 

OUR MEETINGS. 

The annual meetings have heen held in Newark, except in four 
instances. In 1826 it was held in West Bloomfield, (now Mont- 
clair); in 1851 at Elizabeth; and at two intermediate dates at 
Orange. Special and semi-annual meetings were held at Eliza- 
beth, Bloomfield, Montclair, Paterson, Orange, and South Orange. 

PAPERS READ BEFORE THE SOCIETY. 

There have been forty-eight papers read before the Society. The 



HISTORY OP ESSEX DISTRICT MEDICAL SOCIETY. 119 

first was by Dr. Abraham Clark, in 1820, on the subject of " Ty- 
phus Icteroides," with observations on its treatment." 

October 3, 1820, Dr. John D. Williams presented a paper on 
" Hydrophobia." 

March 6, 1821, Dr. Isaac Pierson presented a paper oiji the "Epi- 
demic Dysentery of 1819." 

October 2, 1821, Doctors Daniel Babbitt, Abraham Clark and 
William Pierson presented a report on the " Curative properties 
of the Orange Spring Water." • 

October 7, 1823, Dr. Abraham Clark presented a report on " Hy- 
drophobia," and recommends vaccination as a remedy. 

Dr. Charles Davis, a highly respectable physician of Elizabeth, 
wrote a letter to Dr. John B. Beck, dated March 4, 1823, detailing 
fifteen cases of hydrophobia in animals, and four of persons bitten, 
all of which escaped death in consequence of earcmon, and sktdl cap. 

March 1, 1825, Dr. John Ward read a valuable paper on 
" Ergot." This was soon after the introduction of this drug to the 
profession. Dr. Ward made an important prophecy, which has 
proved eminently true, that the drug would prove useful in the 
cases of women liable to flow profusely after child-birth. He also 
intimated that this drug was liable to abuse. This paper was pub- 
lished in the New York Medical and Physical Journal, vol. 4, page 
202. It is a paper of eight octavo pages. Dr. John Stearns, of 
New York, formerly from Saratoga county, who introduced Ergot 
to the profession, remarked to the author on one occasion, a few 
years after its introduction in 1822, that he doubted, in view of 
the abuse of Ergot, whether he had blessed the world by its intro- 
duction, 

1826. Dr. Samuel Hays read a paper on " The Prevailing Epi- 
demic, Dysentery." 
1829. Dr. Samuel L. Ward read a paper on " Colica Pictonum." 
1836. Abraham Canfield, President, made a " Report of an In-^ 
teresting Case." 



120 MEDICAL SOCIETY OP NEW JERSEY. 

1838. George R. Chetwood, President, a paper on " Neuralgia." 
1838. Lewis A. Hall, on " Insanity." 
1838. S. B. Arms, " An Interesting Case." 

1838. Communication from Dr. Jeptha B. Munn, of Chatham, 
entitled, " The Recollections of Dr. David Martin, of Springfield." 
We have written a letter to Dr. Isaac Munn, of Brooklyn, and Dr. 
John Munn, of Chatham, sons of Dr. Jeptha B. Munn, and have 
hoped to obtain that paper, and to thus complete our biographical 
sketch of Dr. Martin. We have written several other letters, and 
have taken much pains, but with no favorable result. 

1839. Cora Osborne read the President's Address — no subject. 
1839. A. W. Reeves read a paper on "Medical Literature." 

1839. S. H. Pennington, on "Acute Rheumatism." 

1840. Abraham Coles gave an address on " The Importance and 
Dignity of Physic." 

1841. Dr. Whitfield Nichols, on " The Hindrances and Discour- 
agements to the Advancement of Medical Science." 

1841. J. A. Corwin read a paper on "The Modus Operandi of 
Medicine." 

1843. S. E. Arms, President, on " Phthisis Pulmonalis." 

1830. Dr. Jabez G. Goble — no subject named. 

1833. Samuel Hays, President, on "The Importance of Medical 
Men Aiming at a High Standard of Intellectual and Professional 
Knowledge." 

1833. Samuel Hays, President, on " Spasmodic Cholera." 

1833. Dr. Whitfield Nichols, Report as Chairman of the Com- 
mittee on " Cholera." 

1834. William Pierson, President, on " Diseases of the Spine." 
1834. W. Nichols, on " Variola and other Exanimentha." 

1834. S. Cougar, " Translation of Broussais Pathology." 

1835. L. A. Smith, " Report of Two Cases of Interest." 

1843. J. L. Steams, "Vaccination." 

1844. S. E. Arms, " Odntalgia." 



HISTORY OP fiSSEX DISTRICT MEDICAL SOCIETY. 121 

1845. 8. H. Pennington, " Cultivation by Medical Men of a 
Spirit of Philosophical Investigation." 

1847. Abraham Coles, " Legal Insanity.^' 

1847. A. N. Dougherty, " Popular Insanity, Exemplified by the 
Favor Accorded to Homoepathy." 

1849. J. Henry Clark, " Cases from My Note Book." 

1851. John P. Ward, President — no subject recorded. 

1852. Dr. Kent, " Erysipelas." 

1852. J. Henry Clark, " Winter Miasmatic Fever of 1851-2," 
published in the Transactions of the National Medical Association. 

1853. A. N. Dougherty. '' Corpus Luteum." 

1864. A. N. Dougherty, " Connection between Medicine and Dra- 
matic Literature of the Seventeenth Century." 

1854. C. Eyrich, » Digitatis and Tartrate of Potash." 

1854. E. D. G. Smith, " Chloride of Sodium in Intermittents." 

1855. L. A. Smith, "Dignity of the Medical Profession." 

1856. L. A. Smith, " Malpractice and Empyricism." 
1856. J. Henry Clark, " Professional Remuneration." 

1856. J. Henry Clark, "A Remarkable Case of Gangrene, 
terminating in death in a few hours." 

1856. L. G. Thomas, "Puerperal Convulsions." 

1856. William Pierson, Jr. — subject not recorded. 

1857. J. Henry Clark — subject not recorded. 

1857. A. N. Dougherty — subject not recorded. 

1858. I. A. Nichols, « Sanitary Policy." 

1858. L. A. Oakley, « Cholera Infantum." 

1859. C. Eyrich, President, " Salts of Ammonia." 
1859. William Pierson, Jr., " Extra Uterine Pregnancy." 

1859. Stephen Wickes, " Contagiousness of Puerperal Fever." 

1860. Stephen Wickes, "Phenomena of Death." 

1861. J. A. Cross, "Mortality of Infants." 

1863. Stephen Wickes, President, " The Medical Man, his His- 
tory and Relations." 

1864. William Pierson, Jr., President, " A Review of Fifteen 

16 



122 MEDICAL 800IET7 OF NEW JEBSE7. 

Hundred Cases of Midwifery, occurring in a Practice of Thirteen 
Years." 

1865. 0. Eyrich, " Mushrooms." 

OUR HOSPITALS. 

Before entering upon the next subject, let us pause to record 
important changes and improvements. The population of our 
county has greatly increased. Newark contains one hundred 
thousand inhabitants. A long-needed requirement seems about to 
be supplied. We have hitherto had no hospital accommodations. 
We have a prospect of abundance. 

We have in Newark " The New Jersey Soldiers' Home," Col. 
Dougherty, Commandant and Surgeon. The general plan of this 
most excellent and well-managed institution is the same as that of 
the " Hotel des Invalides" of Paris, or the «* Greenwich Hospital" 
in London. The soldier can find here temporary reliefer a per- 
manent home. 

" St. Barnabas House," under the auspices of the Episcopal 
Church, and the " Hospital of the Sisters of Mercy," under Roman 
Catholic control, are well begun. We have as yet no general 
hospital. Ten years ago a " Boai»d of Directors" were appointed, 
with the view of establishing a Newark City Hospital. The Ger- 
man Hospital Fund has now become considerable. It is now pro- 
posed to combine both eflforts. Newark needs an institution for 
the whole people. It is expected that Elizabeth will move in this 
matter soon, and Orange refuses to be outdone in anything — so 
that the sick of the District will be fully cared for. 

MEDICAL ASSOCIATIONS. 

In 1835 the " Newark Medical Association" was formed. A fee 
table was adopted. The fee for an ordinary visit before was a 
quarter of a dollar, and everything in proportion. 

In 1857 the Association was revived, and a new and much more 
extended table, with greatly increased rates, was adopted. Your 



HI8T0BY OP ESSEX DISTRICT MEDICAL SOCIETY. 123 

historian, as Committee for that purpose, prepared this table, and 
also the fee table of the State Society, adopted the next year, also 
by appointment of that Society. This table has since been some- 
what modified. 

The " Newark Medical Association" still continues its organiza- 
tion. The " Essex Medical Union" was formed in 1859. It has 
now entered its ninth year. The meetings are held monthly at the 
houses of the members, and at the close of each meeting an enter- 
tainment is provided, after partaking of which the Union adjourns. 
As is the case with the other Association, the evening is devoted 
to the hearing of essays of " interesting cases," the presentation 
of pathological specimens, and free discussions upon any med- 
ical subject which may be presented. 



OUR NECROLOGY. 

It is only since the Annual Meeting, which was held at Mont- 
clair March 6, 1826, that we find in the minutes any record of de- 
ceased members. 

At that meeting Dr. Jabez G. Goble presented the following 
resolution, which was passed : 

" That it be made the duty of the Secretary to publish, by order 
of the Society, a respectful obituary notice of every deceased mem- 
ber, and direct the usual badge of mourning to be worn by the 
members for thirty days." 

Although afterwards the resolution was somewhat modified, 
since that period the death of no member has failed to be recorded. 

In order to bring up our necrology to this starting place, 
your historian has been forced to rely to some degree upon fects 
obtained from unreliable and indefinite sources, collected with 
much difficulty and no little labor. 

JOHN D. WILLIAMS 

was born November 5, 1765, and died January 5, 1826. He af- 



124 MEDIOAL SOCIETT OF NEW JEB8E7. 

fords an important connecting link between the llalsteds and Bur- 
net, and Bamet of the ante-Revolutionary period. He studied 
medicine with Dr. Daniel Babbitt, in the oflSce of Dr. John Condit 
of Orange. He early settled at Connecticut Farms. He must have 
been there during the latter years of Dr. Caleb Halsted, or have 
immediately succeeded him. He was a magistrate under appoint- 
ment of the elder Governor Pennington, whose sister he married. 

He was our first President. A special meeting was called at 
South Orange, January 7, 1826, when our resolution paid "a tribute 
of respect to a senior and much respected member.'' 

He was buried in the old Orange burying-ground. No stone 
marks his last resting place. One of our members, in view of this 
fact, oflFers five dollars towards a fund to be raised for the purpose 
of performing a duty probably neglected in consequence of inad- 
vertence on the part of his friends. 

UZAL JOHNSON 

was a short, red faced, well fed man. He had a stiff knee, and 
drove a low, small wheeled carriage, made especially to suit his 
infirmity, upon the panels of which was emblazoned the motto — 
" JVonnunquam paratiLS.^' 

He was appointed to the Provisional Congress in 1775. He re- 
fused the appointment but entered the British service. He was 
among the English pensioners either till his death, or till the war 
of 1812. At that time certain if not aU English pensioners were 
obligated to remove into Canada or to forfeit their pension. It is 
said that Dr. Johnson contracted to call every day upon the family 
of the late Col. Samuel Ogden, (whose house was torn away a few 
years ago in order to straighten Broad street above the Stone 
Bridge) to learn whether any of the family were ill, for which ser- 
vice he received an annual stipend. 

He was bom April 17, 1751, and died May 22, 1827, at the age 
of seventy-six. He was abrupt in his manners and address. He 
was more a man of humor than of wit. He was a very agreeable 



HISTORY OP ESSEX DISTRICT MEDICAL SOCIETY. 126 

companion. He belonged to the class in which were found Doc- 
tors Budd, Morse, John Darcy, and others of that period. He 
lived in Broad street, near Commerce street, on the spot where 
was formerly the residence of the late Dr. L. A. Smith. The old 
house now standp in Commerce street, opposite the market. 

ABRAHAM CLARK. 

We next come to our kinsman. His father was Abraham Clark, 
the New Jersey signer of the Declaration of Independence, who 
was thd only son of Thomas Clark. The father of your historian, 
to whom he was related — the late Rev. Daniel A. Clark — ^when a 
boy, narrated to us the manner of the death of Abraham Clark. 
He was superintending the erection of a bridge in his meadow, in 
the autumn of 1794, when he felt the efifects of a coup de soliel. He 
was aware of his danger, said that he should not live, stepped into 
his chaise, and drove home, accompanied by the narrator, who re- 
mained with him till he died, about two hours afterwards. He was a 
feeble boy, but intellectually strong. He was a delegate to the 
Continental Congress in 1794. Dr. Abraham Clark was old enough 
to remember vividly the frequent shifts of his family, during the 
war, to avoid the enemy, and the abandonment of their homestead. 
Two of his older brothers were in the Revolutionary service. Both 
were prisoners of war — one in the '* New York Sugar House," 
and the other in the " Jersey Prison Ship." He first practiced 
medicine in Elizabeth, afterwards, a short time in New York, from 
whence he removed to Newark. He was bom in Rahway, N. J., 
in October, 1767. He studied medicine with Dr. John GriflBths, 
afterwards his father-in-law. He graduated in the University of 
Pennsylvania, under Professors Shippen, Wistar and Rush. He 
was one of the original eleven which formed the " District Medical 
Society of the County of Essex." 

Dr. Clark was a good physician, and was, moreover, familiar 
with general literature and fond of scientific inquiry. He acquired 
Bnuch general information, had considerable conversational power, 



126 MEDICAL SOCIETY OP NEW JERSEY. 

and was an instructive and amusing companion. He was polite, 
cordial, sincere and benevolent, and made many friends. In his 
business, he was industrious, ingenious and attentive. He made a 
specialty of chemistry and pharmacy. He was a man of medium 
height, slender, of nervous manner, scrupulously neat in his attire, 
and always gentlemanly in his manners. He wore invariably a 
light-colored cloth frock coat, (in that day dress coats were invari- 
ably worn) and a ruffled shirt. Many will remember him by this 
pen portrait if it is added that, in his latter days in Newark, 
he was invariably followed by a small black and white spaniel. 
He practiced medicine in Newark until 1830, when he retired 
from business, and removed to Kinderhook, where, at the home of 
his daughter and only child — the widow of the late Dr. Beekman — 
at Kinderhook, he quietly rested from his labors till July, 1854, 
when he passed from earth. He was one of the Secretaries of 
the State Medical Society in 1824. 

His former residence in Newark still stands upon the southwest 
comer of the Canal and Broad street. It is converted into offices and 
stores. The canal originally passed directly through the Doctor's 
garden. In common with many Newarkers of that day, he believed 
that the success of the canal enterprise would greatly benefit the 
city. It is even said that he gave the right of way. 

There are few in these days who would not contribute for the 
purpose of ridding the city of this unmitigated nuisance. " Tern- 
para mutantur et nos mutamw in illis" 

We do not learn that there were any direct medical descendants 
from Dr. Abraham Clark. In an indirect line, there are several, 
besides your historian. Our cousins, Dr. Ephraim Clark, and his 
his son, Dr. James Guion Clark, both of Staten Island, are descend- 
ants by a collateral branch. 

SAMUEL HAYES 

was bom in Newark, in 1776. He died July 30, 1839. He 
graduated at Princeton in the class of 1776. He was a stu 



HISTORY OP ESSEX DISTRICT MEDICAL SOCIETY. 127 

dent of Dr. John B. Rodgers, father of the late Dr. J. Kearney 
Rodgers, from 1795 to 1799, when he was appointed "apothecary 
of the New York Hospital." Doctors John R. B. Rodgers, Wright 
Post, Richard A. Kissam and Valentine Seamen testify to his 
diligence, assiduity and competence to practice medicine, as well 
as his " integrity, uprightness and virtue," inNovember, 1799. He 
engaged in the drug business as one of the firm of Kurze & Hayes a 
few months, from June to August, 1803. He sailed to India as sur- 
geon of the ship " Swan," in 1800. In 1804, we find him associa- 
ted with Dr. Cyrus Pierson in the practice of medicine in Newark, 
till the death of Dr. Pierson, October 7th, 1806, in the 48th year 
of his age. Within a few years of his death, he removed from his 
house, where is now the Mechanics' Bank, to the old homestead near 
the present residence of Cornelius Walsh, Esq., then remote from 
the town, where he passed the remnant of his days. 

His son. Dr. James Hayes, graduated^t Princeton in the class of 
1840, and took his medical degree in the College of Physicians 
and Surgeons in the class of 1844. Dr. Samuel Hayes was a man 
of excessive modesty, of acknowledged skill in the management of 
fevers. He was tall, somewhat bent, and had a small head. He 
was a scholarly man, very faithful to the interests of his patients. 
He was excessively sensitive and unwilling to present a professional 
bill, although he never received over twenty-five cents a visit. He 
ever maintained a high Christian character, and was universally 
esteemed. 

JOHN WARD 

was born April 26th, 1774. He studied medicine with Dr. Condit, 
of Orange. His first wife was Dr. Condit's daughter. He removed 
fit)m Orange to Bloomfield, and afterwards to Newark. In 1 830, his 
office was at the comer of New and Broad streets. Afterwards he 
removed to Orange street, and lived under the overshadowing wil- 
lows which still stand, affording a characteristic feature of the east- 
em point of the little park. At a later period, he built the house 



128 MEDICAL SOCIETY OF NEW JES8ET. 

adjoining the present residence of Hon. Marcus L. Ward, on the 
north, where he remained till his death. He was a man of medium 
stature. He bad a slight stoop apparently at the neck. Had great 
powers of endurance ; was eminent as an obstetrician, although he 
never attended but one hundred and fifty cases per annum. The 
physician who would be first named in Newark, in this specialty, 
is said to have attended double that number in a single year. 
None will deny that he attended thrice as many as a man 
ought to attend in any year, at any period of his life. He was 
very kind and pleasant in his manners, attentive to his business, 
and universally esteemed. Dr. John F. Ward is said to resemble 
him in appearance. He died June 24, 1836, aged 62 years. 
He was an eminently religious man. He was a cotempofary of 
Dr. Hayes. Dr. J. B. Jackson, his brother-in-law, succeeded 
him in business. He was the ancestor of the following well- 
known medical gentlemen : 

Eleazer Ward, brother; John P. Ward, nephew; Edward 
Ward, nephew; William S. Ward, nephew; George Ward, nephew; 
Augustine Ward, nephew ; I. Monroe Ward, nephew ; and J. B. 
Ward, grand-nephew. 

Dr. Samuel L. Ward, of Belleville, belongs to a collateral 
branch. 

Samuel Manning, William Johnson, Joseph Quimby, of West- 
field, and David Martin, of Springfield, were worthy, able and 
excellent men, but your historian is unable to obtain any facts in 
relation to them. With regard to the latter, there is somewhere 
a paper, entitled, " Recollections of David Martin, by Jeptha B. 
Munn." If it is found, or facts are obtained with regard to the 
others named, your historian takes the liberty of inviting the 
reader who can furnish such facts, to communicate with any officer 
of the Society. 

Dr. Ellison was a highly respectable practitioner of Paterson. 
Beyond this, your historian is not informed. 



HISTORY OP ESSEX DISTRICT MEDICAL SOCIETY. 129 

After the death of John D. Williams, twenty years passed with- 
out the loss of a single member. 
The next to fell was 

ABRAHAM CAMFIELD. 

This was the first fiineral in the experience of most of us. He 
was the son of Robert Camfield, the senior carriage builder of 
Newark. He was born in Newark, August 9th, 1797, and died 
August 24th, 1846. He was a tall man, (six feet two inches) of 
pleasing manners. Many will remember him with his everlasting 
satinet pants, white vest, frock coat, (others wore dress coats)'white 
cravat, and grapevine cane. He was a student of Dr. John Ward, 
and studied his profession while confined to his bed with a " white 
swelling." He loved a practical joke, and told a good story. A 
special meeting was called It the Park House, August 27 th, 1847, 
and the Society passed the usual resolutions. The Society attended 
his funeral in a body, as by resolution. He was a good man, and 
is believed to have been a sincere Christian. 

JAMES LEE 

had a large practice in Newark, till he left the city in 1826. He 
removed to Baltimore, where he died. He built a house much in 
advance of the times, at the comer of Clinton and Broad streets, 
where is now the Mutual Benefit Life Insurance Company, He 
vras about fifty years of age when he left town. He is spoken of 
as ambitious and extravagant. He had for some years the finest 
house and drove the most elegant equipage. His professional car- 
riage is said to have been very beautiful. His name appears often 
in the records of the Society. 

JAMES NICHOLS 

was bom in Newark, January 30th, 1815. He died January 17th, 
1849. It will be seen he died at the early age of 34. He was a 
class-mate of your historian, in the College of Physicians and Sur- 
17 



130 MEDICAL SOCIETY OF NEW JERSEY. 

geons, New York, and graduated in the class of 1839. He was 
studious, reticent, nervous, quick of apprehension, and while he 
could be, was diligent in his business. He lived long enough to gain 
to a high degree, the confidence of the people. He was President 
of the Society at the time of his death. He was the business part- 
ner of Doctors John S. Darcy and Whitfield Nichols, fie was 
tall and spare and somewhat stooped. He had a very serious, long, 
pale, thin face, and while regarded as in health, had an invalid 
appearance. He married Cornelia, daughter of J. Baldwin, of 
Elizabeth, by whom he had one child, a daughter, who died in 
early youth. 

WHITFIELD NICHOLS 

survived his brother but two years. He died, as did James, of 
consumption. He went down to his grave more slowly. He was 
born in Newark, February 6th, 1807, and died December 9th, 
1851, also young ; he was but forty-four. He died at his residence- 
in Park Place, next north of the Park House. As will be seen 
later, his partner. Dr. John S. Darcy, has also followed him, leav- 
ing his nephew, Dr. Isaac A. Nichols, the successor of the firm of 
Darcy and Nichols. Drs. Isaac A. Nichols and E. P. Nichols are 
nephews of Doctors Whitfield and James Nichols. 

He graduated at Princeton College in 1825, having entered the 
junior year in the class with Shippen, Ramsay, Rush, Hosack, and 
other distinguished men among the dead. 

He was a student of Dr. Samuel Hayes, and early gave evidence 
of high promise. He took his medical diploma in New York, at a 
medical institution called " The Medical Faculty of Geneva Col- 
lege," whose Professors were Hosack, Mott, Francis, Macnevin, 
Goodman, and subsequently Bushe. He immediately opened his 
office in Newark, and soon after entered into partnership with Dr. 
John S. Darcy. 

In 1836 he was obliged to relinquish his business and go to the 
West Indies. From even an earlier date to the close of his 



HISTORY OP ESSEX DISTRICT MEDICAL SOCIETY. 131 

life he struggled against the insidious disease which confined 
him to his chamber for five or six months before his de- 
cease. Dr. N. loved the profession. He was a ripe scholar, nor 
was he wanting in literary acquirements. On his accession to the 
Vice P:ifesidency of the State Medical Society, an oflSce which he 
held at the time of his death, he delivered an able address on the 
"Diseases Incident to Old Age," which was regarded as an able 
paper. He was a religious man. He was consistent in his walk 
and conversation. He was candid and sincere. He was broad in 
his judgments, and honorable and courteous in his intercourse with 
the profession and the public, and he had the rare but happy 
faculty of making everybody his friend without the sacrifice of 
principle or opinion. 

Dr. N. was a stout man. He had black hair and black eyes. 
His maimer was quiet and considerate, as were his judgments judi- 
cious and deliberate. He was a Director in one of our largest 
Banks, and his financial judgment was much regarded. 

The State Medical Society as well as ours passed appropriate 
resolutions, and we attended his funeral in a body. His first wife 
was Mary Taylor, the daughter of the late John Taylor, Esq. His 
second wife survives him. • He left no children. 

JESSE DELANO 

was bom in New York city, February 12, 1812. He died of con- 
gestion of the lungs at Millbum, New Jersey, August 8, 1851. 

In our resolutions he is alluded to as ** a highly respected mem- 
ber of our profession, who contributed to its reputation and use- 
fulness." 

He was a tall man and rather stout. He had black hair and 
large black bushy whiskers. He was reticent and retiring. In 
his circle of practice in Springfield he was universally esteemed ; 
this is proved by the fact that after residing for a time in Newark 
and New York, he returned to Springfield, to labor on till death, 
at the earnest solicitation of his former patrons and friends. 



132 MEDICAL SOCIETY OP NEW JERSEY. 

JABEZ G. GOBLE 

was the son of Luther Goble, who, with Robert Camfield and Wil- 
liam Rankin, contributed mainly to lay the deep foundations of the 
manu&cturing celebrity which Newark now enjoys. It is now the 
fifth in the Union in point of manufactures. • 

Dr. Goble was bom in Newark, November 13, 1799. He died 
February 7, 1859. He was educated from early life for a profes- 
sional career. He graduated at Hamilton College in the class of 
1819. He was a student of Dr. Isaac Pierson, of Orange, and an 
oflBce pupil of the late Dr. David Hosack, of New York. He took 
his medical degree at the College of Physicians and Surgeons in 
New York, when under the conduct of Hosack, Hammersley, Mac- 
nevin, Mitchell, Mott and Francis. He distinguished himself as a 
member of the " Medico Chirurgical Society" during his student 
course. 

He was the " Resident Physician" of Newark for many years, 
which then combined the duties of " Health Physician," " District 
Physician," and " Jail Physician." He was President of the New 
Jersey State Medical Society in 1839. 

He at length relinquished general practice, and devoted himself 
to the interests of the " Mutual Life Insurance Co. of New York," 
with what remarkable success we all know. He had a happy fac- 
ulty of pleasing. He managed to win favor for himself and still 
leave those with whom he conversed on better terms with them- 
selves than before. 

Dr. Goble was a man universally known. He was one of the 
institutions of Newark. He was tall, erect, scrupulously neat in 
his dress, punctual in his engagements, and gentlemanly in his 
manners. His suavit&r in modo made him many friends. Many 
will remember his faultlessly-brushed hat and gold spectacles. 

He was seldom abrupt, still always in haste, and his manner 
was singularly persuasive. When he died almost everybody felt 
that they had individually lost something. He could stand at the 
Post Office and shake hands with moi^ people than almost any 



HISTORY OP ESSEX DISTRICT MEDICAL SOCIETY. 133 

other man in the city. Perhaps the two men most missed from 
Newark by the most people, were Dr. Jabez G. Goble and Rev. 
James Scott, D. D. It seemed as if they could not be spared. 

Dr. Goble always took an interest in politics. He was a fluent, 
ready spaker. He was President of the Common Council, and 
served in the State Legislature. 

In all works of Christian benevolence he took a very deep in- 
terest. He was conspicuous in the colonization cause, which owed 
its success in New Jersey greatly to his exertions. He was a 
Deacon in the Third Presbyterian Church in Newark. 

He visited Europe in 1835. His correspondence, published in 
the papers while abroad, evinced considerable literary ability. 

Dr. Goble died suddenly of inflammation of the bowels. His 
brother, John Goble, died some years ago of the same disease and 
much in the same manner. He was visited in his last illness by 
his early friend. Dr. John W. Francis, of New York, who has 
since followed him. 

OSCAR J. AKERS 

was the next of our number whom we were called to bury. He 
was a short, stout, good-natured, kind-hearted man. His neighbor 
and friend, Dr. William S. Ward, one of our members, was af- 
flicted by the loss of three children in a single week, with diph- 
theria. Dr. Akers was indefatigable in his attention upon the 
fejnily of his professional brother. One morning, in the midst of 
that week so fatal to the family of Dr. Ward, Dr. Akers felt that 
his throat was inflamed. Accustomed to an inflamed throat, he was 
not anxious, but looking into it he thought he saw the fatal erup- 
tions. Asking another to examine, and report to him the result 
of such examination, he said, ^^ I shall not recover. ^^ All that his 
brethren could do was done to save him. He sunk rapidly, and 
we bore him to his grave. Dr. Akers will be long remembered on 
account of his admirable social qualities and sincerity. He was 
an honest, reliable man. He was the soul of honor, and his integ- 
rity none ever called in question. 



134 MEDICAL SOCIETY OP NEW JERSEY. 

December — , 1860, he married Mrs. Mary Cole. The profes- 
sion generally were present at the wedding, and while we congrat- 
ulated him upon so worthy an acquisition, we anticipated for him 
many years of wedded happiness. A few months rolled on, and in 
the same parlors we were congregated around his dead body. 
We were now called upon to console her whom we had so lately 
congratulated as a bride — she was again a widow. 

Dr. Akers was bom in Bloomfield in 1823. He died at his res- 
idence in New street, Newark, April 9, 1861, in the thirty-ninth 
year of his age. He was a graduate of the College of Physicians 
and Surgeons in New York. 

" Adeiphos," in the Daily Advertiser, writes of him : " Sleep 
well, beloved brother, whose life was laid down on the altar of 
duty. Earth can have no greener spot than the turf that covers 
thy true heart." 

At a meeting of the Society the following resolutions are the two 
first of the five adopted on that occasion : 

— " That the many excellent qualities of the deceased, his geni- 
ality and kindness of heart, his sound judgment and ample infor- 
mation, especially upon topics connected with his profession, give 
us great and unusual reason to mourn his loss. 

— " That this painful event adds another to the many instances 
often too little appreciated, in which physicians have sacrificed 
themselves on the altar of professional duty, and that this consid- 
eration may legitimately assuage the grief of his sorrowing friends." 

JOHN FRAME. 

In the early years of Dr. Akers' practice he had a partner, Dr. 
John Frame. He was a very promising young man. He died 
very soon after he commenced business. 

EDWARD A. PIBRSON. 

Our first martyr to a preserved nationality was born in Newark 
March 22, 1836. He was killed May 22, 1862. He was a lineal 



HISTORY OF ESSEX DISTRICT MEDICAL SOCIETY. 135 

descendant from Rev. Abraham Pierson, the first pastor of the 
First Presbyterian Church in Newark, and is alluded to as one of 
the earliest practitioners of medicine of which your historian can 
gain any knowledge. 

He studied medicine with Dr. John F. Ward, and graduated at 
the " College of Physicians and Surgeons" in New York, in the 
class of 1858. When the war began he at once entered the service 
as Assistant Surgeon of the First Regiment, New Jersey Volun- 
teers. He remained till the expiration of the " three months ser- 
vice." He performed its duties faithfully, and was honorably dis- 
charged. He soon after presented himself for examination, and 
was appointed Assistant Surgeon in the United States Navy. 

January 24, 1862, he was assigned to the frigate St. Lawrence. 
In the ever-memorable contest with the Merrimac, a shell entered 
his room and he narrowly escaped injury. He accompanied the 
vessel to Key West, and was one of the subjects of yellow fever. 
He narrowly escaped with his life, and came home in a very feeble 
condition. 

After a short stay, Dr. P. was detached to the Penobscot, which 
was on the blockade of Wilmington, N. C. On the morning of the 
22d of May, 1862, a rebel steamer was discovered trying to run 
the blockade, when the Penobscot went in pursuit. A shell from 
Fort Fisher entered his room and exploded. The Doctor was 
struck by a large splinter of wood, which fractured the occipital 
bone. He became immediately unconscious, and lived but two 
hours. He had laid out his instruments, and was fully prepared 
to meet his expected patients. 

Dr. Pierson was a young man of rare personal beauty, of viva- 
cious manners, of remarkable memory, of great good nature, and a 
consistent Christian. He was the life of our social medical circle, 
and will be long remembered. 

He was buried in Mount Pleasant Cemetery. The Society at- 
tended his funeral, and resolved : 

" That we express our sincere gratitude to that kind Providence 



136 MEDICAL SOCIETY OP NEW JERSEY. 

which has protected the many from our Society, who have gone out 
to share the privations and to mitigate the suflFerings of the brave 
men who were fighting the battles of the Union ; and moreover, 
that, in view of the kind spirit of our deceased brother, and of his 
ample preparation for advance in his profession, and the many evi- 
dences that he was fully occupying a position of honorable useful- 
ness, we deplore his loss to his country as well as to ourselves." 

JOHN C. ELMER 

was born in Goshen, Orange county, New York, April 7, 1817. 
He graduated at the College of Physicians and Surgeons in the 
class of 1840. He settled in Mendham, New Jersey, in 1840. He 
removed to Springfield in 1852, where he continued until his death, 
which occurred October 17, 1863. 

He had acquired a ripe experience, and was regarded as especially 
skilled in diagnosis. He was very faithfiil to his patients, and had 
a strong hold upon their afiections. His mind was strong and dis- 
criminating, and he was patient in research. He was a very tall, 
stout man ; his face bore ample evidence of kindness of heart and 
quiet thinking, common to many men of sympathetic temperaments. 
He was, however, a man of strong will and very decided opinions. 
He was a student of Dr. John B. Johnes, of Morristown, one of 
the most eminent men in our State in his day. He was an emi- 
nent Christian as well as a patriot. 

WILLIAM MORTIMER BROWN, 

the next who fell, was born in Newark, New Jersey, September 8, 
1816. He died April 4, 1864, in the forty-eighth year of his age. 
He was one of our most faithful, active, conscientious members, al- 
ways at his post, and ever punctual in every appointment. He 
was one of the Deacons of the Third Presbyterian Church, and 
was active in every good work. He was feeble for years before 
his decease. He had a very strong predisposition to disease of the 
lungs, which rendered it unsafe for him to expose himself at night. 



HISTORY OF ESSEX DISTRICT MEDICAL SOCIETY. 137 

The disease slowly but insidiously advanced till about all available 
lung was consumed. He sunk to his grave " calmly, like one who 
wraps the drapery of his couch about him, and lies down to pleas- 
ant dreams." His manners were quiet and retiring, He was a 
good physician, and enioyed to a high degree the confidence of his 
fellow practitioners. He regarded with especial interest the espi it 
du corps of the profession, and was ever mindful of its honor and 
dignity. He was a man of medium size, slim, sallow, and bore for 
years evidence of consumptive tendencies. 

Dr. S. H. Pennington published in the Transactions of the State 
Medical Society, in 1865, an eloquent and elegant tribute to the 
memory of our common friend, which thus closes : 



' Let them bewail their doom 



Whose hopes still linger in this dark sojourn ; 
But pious souls can look beyond the tomb. 

And smile at fate, and wonder why they mourn." 

LUTHER G. THOMAS 

was one of our youngest members. He was bom in Newark, Jan- 
nary 27, 1830. His name has honorable place in the Army record, 
as will be seen by reference to the succeeding Adjutant General's 
oflScial report. 

He was the son of Frederic S. Thomas, Esq., and grandson of 
the late Luther Goble, Esq., one of our earliest and most prosper- 
ous manufacturers. He graduated at Princeton College in 1849. 
He was Secretary at the first Class Meeting, and made a valuable 
statistical report. He was a student of the late Dr. L. A. Smith, 
who wrote an obituary notice, published in the Transactions of the 
State Society for 1865. 

He received his medical diploma at the College of Physicians 
and Surgeons in 1852. As a student ha was industrious, as a 
physician attentive, skillful and kind. 

In 1863 he went out as Surgeon of the Twenty-sixth Regiment, 
New Jersey Volunteers. He died suddenly and unexpectedly 
18 



138 MEDICAL SOCIETY OP NEW JERSEY. 

tQ himself and his friends, it is said, of congestion of the brain, 
May, 1864. He was a member of the South Park Presbyterian 
Church. His medical brethren accompanied his remains to their 
last resting place. 

Leaves have their times to fall, 

And flowers to wither at the north wind's breath. 
And stars to set — but all 

Thou hast all seasons for thine own, O, Death ! 

DANIEL BABBITT. 

Although one of the originators of this Society, he has not been 
known as a physician to the present generation. He ceased to 
practice medicine about a quarter of a century ago. He was bom 
in Morris county in 1778, and practiced medicine in Orange from 
1811 till 1840. In civil life he filled stations of honor and respon- 
sibility. 

He is spoken of as a good physician. It is said that *< he ever 
cherished a high estimate of the rights and honor of the profes- 
sion." An obituary appears in the Transactions of 1865, by Dr. 
William Pierson. He died May 16, 1864, in the seventy-eighth 
year of his age. 

JOSEPH ADDISON FREEMAN 

was the son of A. H. Freeman, Esq., of Orange. He was bom in 
Paterson, New Jersey, June 25, 1833, and died at Nashville, Ten- 
nessee, December 29, 1864. He graduated at Princeton College 
in 1852, and took his medical degree at the College of Physicians 
and Surgeons in New York in the class of 1856. He first settled 
at " Liberty Corners." After three years he returned to Orange, 
and soon entered the Army. He was taken prisoner at the " seven 
days' fight." He received, soon after, a commission as Assistant 
Surgeon in the Thirteenth Regiment, New Jersey Volunteers. Af- 
ter the battle of Gettysburg he took the place of Dr. Love, who 
resigned, and later was commissioned as " Assistant Surgeon in the 



HISTOBY OP ESSEX DISTRICT MEDICAL SOCIETT. 139 

Volunteer Corps," and assigned to hospital duty at Nashville, Ten- 
nessee, where he died. 

He was our second martyr. His death was due, undoubtedly, 
to the exposures of the service. Although but thirty years of age, 
his medical judgment was mature. When he died one of our best 
young men was sacrificed upon the altar of a preserved nationality. 
Pierson and Freeman should ever be remembered by all patriots 
with peculiar aflFection. We sacrificed something — ^they gave their 
lives. 

Many others participated in the bloody scenes of battle or in 
pestilential hospitals, but all else were returned to us in safety. 

J. CAREY SELDEN 

was a native of Powhatan county, Virginia, and a graduate of the 
Medical Department of the New York University. He was two 
years the Assistant Surgeon at " Ward^s Island Hospital," New 
York, where he gained considerable reputation as a surgeon and 
physician. He established himself in Broad street, in Newark, 
near the Stone Bridge, in 1860, and was winning his way, despite 
the great infirmity which caused his death. 

He was found dead in his office, November 14, 1865, having 
died soon after coming in from a professional visit early in the 
morning, and was supposed to have died in one of the epileptic 
paroxysms to which he was subject. He died at the age of thirty- 
one, and was never married. He was large and tall, pleasant 
and sociable, honorable in his business relations, and had made 
many friends. He served for some years as Acting Assistant Sur- 
geon of the Ward U. S. Hospital in Newark. 

ABEL HERVEY WILDER, 

although not of our Society, was a good practitioner. We 
knew little of him till his later days, when he settled on the woody 
summit of the hill that skirts the village of Bloomfield. He was 
well educated in his profession ; a man of honor, and much respected 



140 MEDICAL SOCIETY OP NEW JERSEY. 

by sdl who knew him. He was a stout, well-built man, his erect 
carriage and courtly manners giving him a military air. He inva- 
riably wore a ruflJed shirt and a single-breasted coat. He was 
bom in Winchendon, Massachusetts, June 16, 1801, and died in 
Bloomfield, New Jersey, January 2, 1864. Educated at Dartmouth 
College, he practiced medicine principally in Massachusetts and 
in Richmond, Virginia. He came among us in broken health, to 
work a while longer, and to die. 

DAVID STEWART CRAIG. 

Just as we are completing our Xecrological Record, one of the 
patriarchs of the profession has passed away. Dr. Craig was bom 
in 1774. He dies at the ripe age of 92. He has prescribed for 
three or four generations, and his ken must have extended back 
to our ante-Revolutionary medical ancestors. 

He was over six feet high, well proportioned, had black 
eyes and hair. He was a good practitioner, and much respected 
by aU the generations. 

He practiced medicine always in Rahway. He once published in 
successive numbers in the Rahway Advocate, a history of Rahway. 

Many years ago he relinquished his practice to Doctors Drake 
and Abemethy. He accumulated a considerable fortune. 

He has, until within a very few years, occasionally attended the 
meetings of our County Society. 

In the early history of Rahway its only lawyer asked Dr. Craig 
how he could live, because that he had no business. He advised 
him to induce another to come and he would then have no trouble. 

Dr. S. C. Marsh, of our Society, was a nephew of Dr. Craig, 
whose name he received. Dr. Marsh was also a son-in-law of the 
late Dr. John C. Budd, and grandson of Dr. Isaac Morse. Few 
can boast such illustrious medical kindred. 

DAVID CRAIG. 

We have just learned that David Craig, the father of D. S. Craig, 
practiced medicine in Rahway back in the time of Rev. Dr 



HISTORY OP ESSEX DISTRICT MEDICAL SOCIETY. 141 

Dickinson, of Elizabeth. He had great reputation in febrile dis- 
eases. He died before the Revolutionary war. He was probably' 
one of the earliest physicians in Essex county of which we have 
any record. 

His nfime should have appeared among the first in our record. 
If known sooner, we should have followed up this lead. It would 
be very interesting to have some facts about Dr. David Craig, in a'' 
shape to be permanently preserved. 

The whole of this record merely affords materials for history. 
An abler pen, we trust, will use this in some future time. It would 
be easy now to extend those sketches into a large and valuable 
historical volume. 

"Would that our record could close at this point, but, alas I we 
may not lay down our pen until we have inscribed on the death 
roll the name of one whose decease leaves a practicable breach in 
our ranks. 

LYNDON A. SMITH, 

whose name appears so often in our Transactions ever since 
April 28, 1829, and up to the close of the very last meeting, will 
be written there no longer. It must appear henceforth among the 
list of those who have passed away. 

While in the enjoyment of his usual health, there was suddenly 
developed disease of the prostrate gland. Although he rallied 
sometimes, there was nothing like recovery. In six or eight weeks 
his life was terminated. The sentiment of the profession and the 
public could not be better expressed than in the resolution which 
we passed at the special meeting called to make arrangements 
to attend his funeral : 

''Resolved, That in the death of Dr. Smith this Society suffers no 
common bereavement. Eminently social and genial in his feelings, 
cordial in his friendships, kind to his equals in age, fatherly to- 
ward his juniors, and ingenuous and open in all his intercourse, he 
had won a warm place in our fraternal regard. Educated at one 



142 MEDICAL SOCIETY 05* NEW JERSEY. 

of New England's oldest seats of learning, and trained for his pro- 
fession in one of our best medical schools, he united, with a gener- 
ous general culture, a thorough knowledge of the principles of the 
liberal science to which he purposed to devote his life ; and, under 
the guidance of a discriminating judgment and a conscientious 
sense of responsibility, he applied this knowledge with distinguished 
skill and success to the relief of suffering humanity, through a pe- 
riod of more than forty years. Holding in just appreciation the 
noble mission of his profession and its exalted rank among secular 
pursuits, he was warmly interested in every effort to add to its 
stores of knowledge to extend the limits of its resources, and elevate 
the standard of literary and scientific preparation to be required 
of those who would seek admission to its mysteries. Hence, 
the various associations, local and national, instituted with refer- 
ence to those objects, found in him an ardent friend, a constant, 
ever present helper. Nor, in the walks of his profession alone, 
were his virtues illustrated. Humane in all his impulses, every 
work of philanthropy had a place in his sympathies ; a sincere and 
consistent Christian, the Church and all her enterprises of benevo- 
lence and charity received his earnest co-operation and advocacy ; 
a patriotic and loyal citizen, he gave his whole heart to his coun- 
try's cause, and in the day of her calamity, laid the son of his old 
age a sacrifice upon her altar.'' 

Dr. Smith was the son of Rev. Ethan Smith. He was bom at 
Haverhill, New Hampshire, November 11, 1795. He graduated 
at Dartmouth College, August, 1817, where he also took his medi- 
cal degree in 1822, and removed to Newark from Williamstown, 
Massachusetts, in July of 1827. He died in Newark, December 15, 
1865, in the seventy-first year of his age. 

His death was universally regretted. The present generation 
will never forget the benignant, cheerful greeting, the warm grasp 
of his hand, and his hearty co-operation in all that tended to honor 
the profession and to advance the interests of our Society. 

Dr. Abraham Coles, President of the Medical Society of New 



HISTORY OF ESSEX DISTRICT MEDICAL SOCIETY. 143 

Jersey, at the Centenary Anniversary held January, 1866, thus 
alludes to Dr. Smith : 

" Such greetings did your recent coming wait, 
aged pilgrim I at the heavenly gate, 
When man^s allotted years on earth now spent, 
You, dying, * to the greater number went.' 
What though your body moulders 'neath the sod, 
Its untouched life is hid with Christ in God." 

This is the last death in our annals. 

We are glad to reach the close of this dismal catalogue. May 
it be long before the Secretary shall have occasion to call another 
special meeting, or we to tie upon our arms the badge of mourning. 

OUR ARMY AND NAVY RECORD. 

We now turn to the much more cheerfiil task of recording the 
names of the living,* whom we sent out to perform medical and sur- 
gical duties in the Army and Navy during the great Rebellion so 
recently ended. We sent our full quota, and all of them deserve 
the praise of their countrymen and the thanks of the nation. 

The following record of the services of gentlemen from the 
Essex Medical District in the Army and Navy of the United 
States, were kindly furnished, at our own request, by William S. 
Stryker, Esq., Adjutant General of the State of New Jersey. He 
remarks that the rolls of the Navy Department are " very incom- 
plete," and as some error would be likely to occur also in the Army 
record, it has seemed to us better to adopt the alphabetical order. 
The narratives which follow are supposed to contain all the facts : 

John D. Brumley was commissioned Surgeon U. S. Vols., with 
rank of Major, Feb. 19, 1863. Breveted Lieut. Colonel for meri- 
torious services during the war, and honorably mustered out March 
13, 1866. 

J. H. H. Brientnall was appointed an Acting Asst. Surgeon U. 

*NoTB.— Dr. Calhoun died after the Semi-Centennial Anniversary. 



144 MEDICAL SOCIETT OF KEW JERSET. 

8. Xav\\ rVc. Iv^. ISeS^and re^ismed Not. 5, 1862. In 1861, he 
\t»$ mt duty on T. S, S. Crnsader. 

^tjwwc^ 1\ OillKHin wa5 appointed Asst* Surgeon U. S. Army, 
xtJih tUo r^nk of Fir?t Liouienani. April 13. 1863: promoted 
Ofipt^iw «nd Ui>evou>i M:\\>r T* S, Army, Maivh 13. 1S65, and died 
At lUrt 5^ I$bina. N\ Y. llaHvr, J-Iy 1?. lSt^5. 

Alox^ttdor X. rVv;:rf:enT w^as c:dzds5::r.-e'i Soraeon 4th X. J. 
Y\sKs Ai:i^. IT. IS^l : ::v&ie Sxr^»:i U. S. Vo!^. with rank of 
M^Wv S(^jnIn i^V IS^! : >:rv^vctc>i lie-xi. Colx:^ and then Colonel 
tfc>r ^w^r-ilvNrixMfc^ ^hn^^oc^ v::;;r:r^ r^»c vir, as-ibrc^raMy discharged 

^^^V^\\ l^T:?iT.t >n":ii:? <v»T;.r;.^?:iT»^i >xr^*'CL wi X. J. Vol?., June 

i>^ ^S(sl.4^v^\vr.5;^; >iX':^.'v»T. iVJvr:e:r J*. Z-^t -. izfi Tesi^ed Jan. 

l?4|^'i^t i?^v).^.*»ri, A^tf.Tr.'i<5si:.7^^i A-?^., Sirrr^riL U. S^ Xary. Jan., 
4:^^5, it; ';>^fs^. Ati .ti.iy riT irfo: i\ii)i 5cr.nLn?ffr P^t^aSc. and on 

>»*>A>:r. H. i5. 3.M v^- 'rtfej^ ^.mr,Ti»^^irni'»c Sxr-rotiL If^i X. J. Vols., 

0, XVvK.. C^nT>r 4. "Sk^ : ^^c\mr\w, ^nrjj^nr :Sfi3itf TfiriiDfiLl Oct. 11, 
^^(^4>, J^Tv^, %*$r<i >>^Tv^:-r,s> TiiiT^^r^.'^of, ^nx a."T lir' xire^ rsf Ae war, 

l.^>t^'nt ^^\ Of»W> "^^^fi^ ^rtnirnTj5^iaT^f»r! A>%ra. ^Sirrp^nn fid X.J. 
^>^K. \lri> CT. ;^t.: : T\*(\mr\r.^i\ Surc*oT. 4u. X. JI.Tfife^Ofl. 12. 
'I'S^l : t^'«s*o-'W. t^ N( Sicc-^-oT. ^.(, \. r., T (iH^.. ^lan, -f^. 1S$2: 
]i^i»vt<"'*r^r; r^vi ] A ?;'»nsr^^ o (\'?»i^r»tioi n' f.^^ii. of -Sftrricfi. -JhiDf 21. 
".St^^ ; n'>TV>ii-'rAri Si^v**^!. •'^'t^n'^TNi" ^ ; V .^v ,1i».ts^;^ . Tto;. fTT. 1S^5. 

>(\v^vr IVA "tx^^ an^'^^^i^^^ "^v tnr i..>. Xj»''v.y<»)». iS. 1>F>1; 



HISTORY OP ESSEX DI8TBICT MEDICAL SOCIETY. 145 

er, May 30, 1861. In 1865, on the U. S. S. Dictator. In 1866, 
on the U. S. S. Vanderbilt. In Jan., 1867, awaiting orders. Still 
in service. 

William H. Pierson was appointed Acting Asst. Surgeon U. S. 
Navy, Aug. 18, 1862. In 1863, on U. S. S. Water Witch. In 
1865, on the Pontoosac. 'In 1865, May 19, was Acting Passed 
Asst. Surgeon. In 1866, was on an iron clad, on duty at New 
Orleans. Still in service. 

Daniel M. Skinner was commissioned Asst. Surgeon D. S. Navy 
Jan. 24, 1862. In 1863, on sloop Vincennes. In 1865, in the 
West Gulf Blockading Squadron, and recalled to be Asst. Surgeon 
Naval Academy, Newport, R. I. Resigned May 15, 1865. 

E. D. G. Smith was appointed Acting Asst. Surgeon U. S. Navy 
Aug. 12, 1861. In 1862, on U. S. S. Magnolia. In 1864, on U. 
S. S. Arkansas, and honorably discharged Nov. 23, 1865. 

Charles W. Stickney was commissioned Asst. Surgeon, Aug. 3, 
1863, of the 33d N. J. Vols., and was mustered out with the regi- 
ment at the close of the war, July 17, 1865. 

Luther G. Thomas was commissioned Surgeon 26th N. J. Vols. 
Sept. 26, 1862, and was mustered out with the regiment, June 27, 
1863. 

B. E. Van Geison appears in 1861. He was (in 1862) on duty 
on the iron clad steamer Galena, as an Asst. Surgeon U. S. Navy. 

H. C. Van Gieson was appointed Feb. 10, 1864, Acting Asst. 
Surgeon U. S. Navy, and resigned May 17, 1865. 

Edward T. Whittingham was appointed Asst. Surgeon U. S. 
Army, with the rank of First Lieutenant, April 16, 1862, and re- 
signed Nov. 12, 1863. 

Addison W. Woodhull was commissioned Asst. Surgeon 5th N. 
J. Vols., August 23, 1861 ; promoted Surgeon 9th N. J. Vols., 
Feb. 6, 1862, and honorably mustered out by reason of expiration 
of term ©f service, Feb. 7, 1865. He was wounded at Young's 
Cross Road, July 27, 1862^ alpp at Whitehall, May 6, 1864, 
19 



146 * KEDIGAL SOCIBTT OP NEW JERSEY. 

The followiag medical gentlemen served in the Ward D. S. 
General Hospital, in Newark, for a longer or shorter period : 

J, A. Cross, A. M. Mills, Edgar Holden, J. D. Osborne, Milton 
Baldwin, William S. Ward, J. D. Cntter, E. P. Nichols, J. 
Carey Selden, and S. H. Orton, son of Dr. James Orton, of Cald- 
well. 

J. D. BRUMLEY 

had a checkered experience in the service. He entered as a " con- 
tract surgeon," upon a single day's notice, at the solicitation of 
Lieut. Colonel A. N. Dougherty, May 23, 1863. He was first as- 
signed to duty with the 7th Michijjjan Vols., in the brigade of 
which Col. Dougherty was Chief Surgeon. The period of his 
" contract " ending just before the seven days' fight, he remained 
by the request of his officers, and after the fight at Savage Station, 
having remained to take care of the wounded, he was taken pris- 
oner. He was sent to Libby Prison, at Richmond, and detained 
a month. He at once made another " contract," and entered upon 
duty. He went before the Board of Examiners, at Washington, 
and was accepted as Assistant Surgeon of Volunteers. The Senate 
delaying his confirmation, he again entered by " contract," Janu- 
ary 2, 1863, and was assigned to duty in hospital at St Louis, Mo. 
Receiving his commission, he was ordered to Memphis, Tenn., and 
to the charge of the General Hospital. In January, 1864, he was 
ordered to close his hospital, and proceed to Louisville, Ky., and 
to take the general superintendence of all the hospitals in that 
vicinity. 

After two months, he was assigned to duty as " Chief Surgeon 
of the 1st Division of the 4th Army Corps, Department of the 
Cumberland." He remained with the 4th Army Corps, filling the 
position also of " Medical Inspector " and " Medical Director," 
until the autumn of 1865. He accepted the same positions in the 
Atlantic campaign — with Hood at Nashville. After the capture 
of Richmond, he was ordered with his Army Corps to Texas. It 



HISTORY OP ESSEX DISTRICT MEDICAL SOCIETY, * 147 

was there disbanded. However, Dr. B. remained as Chief Sur- 
geon of the " Central District of the Department of Texas," till 
mustered out, March 15, 1866. 

He did service in every rebel State except two, and nearly all 
of the Northern States east of the Mississippi river. 

JOHN H. H. BRIENTNALL, 

was bom in New York, April 14, 1831. He was the son of the late 
Rev. Thomas Brientnall, and graduating at Burlington, N. J., in 
the class of 1853, he took his medical degree at the College of 
Physicians and Surgeons. Entered the Naval service December 
18, 1863. He served one year on board the U. S. Steamer Crusa- 
der, Captain A. R. Rhend, in the South Atlantic Blockading 
Squadron. With the other oflScers, he is commended for gallant 
behavior. He saw considerable very severe and perilous service. 

JAMES THEODORE CALHOUN. 

The language applied to the circumstances attending the death 
of Dr. John Chetwood, in 1832, with some modification, is applica- 
ble to Calhoun. The morning found him ministering to the suffer- 
ing; that very evening he found a grave. At the early age 
of twenty-seven he had finished his life-work, and at this age he 
had accomplished more than many men at three score years and 
ten. 

We knew him intimately in the earliest years of his professional 
life, and always appreciated his restless activity, his desire for use- 
fulness, his skill, his zeal, and his devotedness to the profession of 
his choice. 

While quite young in the profession, he wrote an excellent arti- 
cle on the Influences of Mill-Dams in Rahway, which did much to 
accomplish their removal, and consequently an almost miraculous 
change in the healthfulness of the town. His friend, and in the 
Army of the Potomac his superior officer. Col. A, N. Dougherty, 
says of him : " Notwithstanding his duties in the field, he found 



148 » MEDICAL SOCIETY OP NEW JERSEY, 

time to devote to professional literature. In a series of articles to 
the Philadelphia Medical Reporter, he gave to the profession some 
of the results of his observation and experience during the war." 

Dr. Dougherty bears ample testimony to his activity, his faith- 
fulness, and of his executive ability. " While at Brandy Station, 
we had a Division Medical Society, which was probably the most 
vigorous and useful of any in the army. Its eflScacy was mainly 
due to his earnest endeavors and professional prelections." 

Again : " During General Grant's campaign to Petersburg, he 
displayed admirable qualities. The wounded had implicit confi- 
dence in him, and preferred his attentions to those of any other." 
With regard to another period. Dr. D. remarks : " His superior 
energy and activity caused him to be selected for the charge of the 
colored hospital at City Point. He raised it from a despicable 
position to the first rank, eliciting the warm commendation of the 
Chief Medical oflBcers." 

At Gettysburg, where he assisted in the amputation of the leg 
of General Sickles, Dr. D. says of him : " In this bloody fight his 
energies and resources were taxed to the utmost, but he was never 
found wanting.^' And at another point of time : " He not only 
systematized and improvised his hospitals, but he was the best ope- 
rator in them." 

These quotations could be extended with additions from other 
sources, but it is surely unnecessary. Few knew him as Dr. D. 
did, or had such ample opportunities to understand his excellence, 
and none better than he knew how to appreciate surgical skill or 
professional excellence. It would be unnecessary to say, if we 
were not writing history, that the very same administrative ability, 
the same fidelity, the same activity and skill which marked his 
career in the field and in improvised hospitals, were manifest in 
the conduct of the Ward U. S. Hospital in Newark, which continued 
under his charge until it was disbanded. 

He was a small, nervous, wiry man — ^the world owes much to 
this kind of men in works of initiation and progression — sociable. 



HISTORY OP ESSEX DISTRICT MEDICAL SOCIETY. • 149 

pleasant, aflFable, approachable and kind. His executive ability 
was manifest in his manner and address. He was not less a martyr 
than Pierson and Freeman. It requires precisely the same sort 
of heroism to face the pestilence that it does to lead a charge or 
storm a battery. In his death Dr. C. proved that he possessed the 
virtues of patriotism, zeal, patience, self-abnegation, honor and en- 
durance which are attributed to him by Col. Dougherty. He 
sleeps with the heroes of the Great Rebellion. 

The following letter has been received from Mrs. J. Theodore 
Calhoun, which is followed by an interesting communication from 
Dr. Calhoun himself to the Department, which, together, fur- 
nish a very full account : 

St. Denis Hotel, New York, June 29, 1867. 
Dr. J. Henry dlark, JSTewark, JV. /. ; 

Dear Sir : — I received your letter a day or two since, and shall 
be most happy to give you the dates which you request. 

I have copied a letter addressed by Dr. Calhoun to the Board of 
Examination on Brevet Appointments in the Regular Army, think- 
ing that you might find some facts in it whicli might prove of in- 
terest to you. . 

Dr. Calhoun was born at Rahway, New Jersey, September 17, 
1838, and commenced studying medicine at the age of sixteen, in 
the office of Dr. Samuel Abernethy, of Rahway, who always evinced a 
warm interest in him. He graduated at the University of Penn- 
sylvania, at Philadelphia, on the 17th of March, 1859, in the twen- 
ty-first year of his age. 

He commenced practice at Rahway immediately after he grad- 
uated, and continued in practice for two years, until he entered the 
service in June, 1861, as Assistant Surgeon of the Fifth Excelsior, 
Seventy-fourth New York Volunteer Regiment. He received an 
appointment as Assistant Surgeon in the Regular Army in May, 
1863, and was assigned to duty as Surgeon in charge of the Ward 
U. S. A. General Hospital, on the 24th of September, 1864, 



160 MEDICAL SOCIETY OP NEW JERSEY. 

On the 3d of May, 1865, he married Miss NoraC. Orr. He had 
one child, bom on the 22d of February, 1866. The babe was 
taken ill at Hart's Island, New York Harbor, on the 18th of July, 
the day preceding his father's death, of cholera infantum, and died 
at Newark on the 28th of July, 1866. The Hospital at Newark 
was discontinued in September, 1865, and Dr. Calhoun superin- 
tended the sales of the Government Hospitals in the Department 
of the East ; after which he became Medical Director of Transpor- 
tation at New York city, where he remained from December, 1865, 
until the middle of May, 1866, when he was placed on the Board 
of OfiBcers appointed by the Government to examine and decide 
upon cholera disinfectants, more particularly the "Phoenix Disinfect- 
ant," upon which he did not report favorably. He visited sev- 
eral places for the purpose of trying it, including David's Island, 
New York Harbor, where he tried it upon spoiled eggs. 

He was about to be ordered to Augusta, Maine, when an ex- 
change was made between Assistant Surgeon Harvey Brown and 
himself, and he was ordered, on the 4th of June, 1866, to Hart's 
Island, as Post Surgeon, relieving Dr. Brown. 

On the 6th of July the first deaths from cholera occurred. At 
9 o'clock that morning, part of the Second Battalion of the Seven- 
teenth Infantry were leaving Hart's Island for Texas, when Dr. 
Calhoun noticed that one of the men looked ill, and he ordered him 
to report at the hospital. He died that evening about 7 o'clock. 
Before 9 the following morning two other deaths occurred among 
Germans, who had arrived but a day or two before from the chol- 
era ship Hamburg. About two weeks previous to this there had 
been between forty and fifty cases of cholera morbus. Three of 
these cases Dr. Calhoun and Dr. Rowe, U. S. A., subsequently pro- 
nounced Asiatic cholera. All of them recovered at that time, 
though some of them died afterwards of cholera. This attack was 
supposed to have been caused by one of the cooks having boiled 
beans (which had been given that day as part rations to the men,) 
with salt water. 



HISTORY OP ESSEX DISTRICT MEDICAL SOCIETY. 151 

There were no more cases of cholera until the 6th of July ; after 
which it continued to increase fearfully, sixty-eight deaths occurring 
previous to that of Dr. Calhoun, which took place on the 19th of 
July, 1866. 

On the day previous Dr. Rowe, the Assistant Surgeon, was 
taken with cholera, but recovered. The same day a colored wo- 
man in the adjoining house to our General Doubleday's, a ser- 
vant, was taken. Mrs. Doubleday was much attached to her, and 
Dr. C. was with her a great deal, as Mrs. Doubleday urged him to 
try to save her. 

At 12 o'clock that night he wrote a letter to his mother, in which 
he expressed no fears lor himself, ))ut said, that if the worst came to 
the worst, he should die with his harness on. He seemed then as 
well as usual, except that he was very tired and nervous, and said 
he felt a slight tendency to diarrhoea. He took some burnt brandy 
and paregoric and retired to rest, and slept until 4 o'clock, when 
he was taken with vomiting and purging. 

I immediately called Dr. Webster, a friend of Dr. Calhoun's, and 
the Surgeon commanding David's Island, who, together with Dr. 
Van Courtlandt, of New Rochelle, Dr. Thompson, and Dr. Morris, 
who were sent for, attended him, although he prescribed for him- 
self until 10 o'clock, and he died at half past 12. 

He seemed impressed from the first that he would die. He said 
to Dr. Webster : *' Webster, you understand me what I mean ; I 
am grateful to you for your kindness, but I believe that if you and 
Dr. Van Courtlandt had not come, my nervous enthusiasm would 
have kept me up, and 1 should not have had this attack." 

Dr. Van Courtlandt and Dr. Webster came the night before, 
and remained at Hart's Island that Dr. Calhoun might have some 
rest. He was very calm through the whole, and when General 
Doubleday came in the room, he took his hand and said : " Gen- 
eral, I hope I have done my duty ; it is a great consolation to me 
to know that I shall die at my post." The General, with tears in 
his eyes, said : " Calhoun, you have done more than your duty ; 



152 MEDICAL SOCIETY OP NEW JERSEY. 

nobly and bravely you have sacrificed your life, and like a soldier, 
you will indeed die at your post." He then left the room, and 
several of the oflScers came in, but he seemed much exhausted and 
did not speak to any of them. 

He made all his arrangements with great calmness, telling me 
what he wished done with little Charlie, in the event of my being- 
taken, and requested me to take him to Bahway and bury him 
there. He was conscious almost to the very last, even when he 
could not speak. When he sank in the collapse I endeavored to 
arouse him, and asked him what I should say to his mother for 
him. He replied : " Tell my mother that I died a Christian." His 
breath was then failing, and grew fainter and fainter until it; 
ceased. 

My little boy was then very ill, and the physicians all said he- 
could not live another night unless he had change of air. Dr^ 
Abemethy and Mrs. Calhoun arrived about 7 o'clock, and he said 
another night there would kill him, and, as I feared I would lose 
my child, too, I reluctantly consented to leave. 1 could not bring 
the body away then, as the oflBcers of the post would not allow it,, 
and Dr. A. said I could not pass it through the city without a per- 
mit. 

He was buried that night about 12, by Colonel Swan and his 
brother oflScers, among whom were Colonel Prime, Captain Bayne, 
and Lieutenant Krebs. Colonel Swan read the Episcopal burial 
service. I could not, remove him until very cold weather, but se- 
lected a plot in the Cemetery of Hazlewood, about two miles above B^ 
Bahway, and had a tomb built there. \^5 

I wrote to General Grant, U. S. A., and General Butterfield ,is^ 
very kindly delivered the letter in person, stating that I wished \t ^ 
to remove Dr. Calhoun's remains from Hart's Island, and desired ^i^ 
a military escort. General Grant sent an order from Washington, \j^ 
detailing two companies of the " permanent party " at Bedlow's and s^. ^ 
Governor's Islands, and the band from Port Columbus, as a guard ;-\^»^ 
of honor. u^j; 



Cc 



HISTORY OP ESSEX DISTRICT MEDICAL SOCIETY. 153 

The weather was very severe at that time, but as soon as it was 
possible to navigate the East River, Major R. C. Morgan, of the 
Quartermaster's Department, detailed a steamer for us, and, ac- 
companied by my mother and brother-in-law, we went to Hart's 
Island. General Mcintosh, the officer in command, received us 
very kindly, and all the officers of the post accompanied us to the 
grave. I had determined to have the coffin opened, which the un- 
dertaker did. My husband was very slightly changed, except that 
his face was dark, but the expression and the features were the 
same ; his hands were as white and perfect as ever ; even the linen 
wristband looked as white and stiff as if just put on, and, except a 
few of the buttons, his uniform was untarnished. 

General Mcintosh had the flag placed at half-mast, and a guard 
of honor detailed, under command of Captain Kellyer, to escort 
the remains to Jersey City. 

On Friday, the 22d of February, 1867, the funeral services were 
held at the Second Presbyterian Church, of which the deceased 
was a member. There had been a memorial sermon preached by 
the Rev. J. A. Leggett, on the second Sunday (30th July) after Dr. 
O.'s death, so the Episcopal burial service was read by the Rev. 
Dr. Abercrombie. 

After the service in the church, the regulars, escorted by the 
New Jersey Veteran Volunteers and the New Jersey Rifle Corps, 
inarched to the Cemetery of Hazelwood, where they met the re- 
mains. The coffin was enveloped in the United States flag, and 
on it were laid Dr. Calhoun's sword, sash and cap; a crown of im- 
mortelles, and an anchor and cross of white flowers. 

Little Charlie was placed in the same tomb with his father, af- 
ter which Rev. Mr. Hodges read the conclusion of the burial ser- 
vice, and the permanent party from Governor's Island fired the 
military salute. 

The funeral was attended by the Common Council of Rahway, 
Colonel Shepard, U. S. A., Major Cuyler, commanding the escort, 

20 



r 



164 MEDICAL SOCIBTY OP NEW JERSEY. 

Major Mcintosh, Major McOonnell, and other oflScers of the Regu- 
lar Army. 

The people of Rahway united their efforts to testify their respect 
to Dr. Calhoun's memory. The houses were draped with mourning 
and the flags placed at half-mast throughout the place. At Mr. 
Crowell's, where but a few months before the Doctor attended a 
large party, the columns of the house were draped with moumiDg 
very heavily, and several flags beautifully intermingled with it. 

Dr. Calhoun received two brevets for faithful and meritorious 
services during the war, dating from the 13th of March, 1866, 
while in command of the Ward U. S. A. General Hospital ; and 
since his death, the President has brevetted him Lieutenant Colo- 
nel in the Regular Army, for " distinguished and meritorious ser- 
vices at Hart's Island, New York, where cholera prevailed, to date 
from the 19th of July, 1866." 

I have had a monument designed by Mr. Jardine, of Rahway, 
which is nearly completed, and will be erected in a short time. It 
is of marble, on a granite base ; the second base, which is of mar- 
ble, is supported by columns surmounted by vases of flowers, and 
around the base of the shaft is a wreath of ivy, and a^ove that a 
broken lily. Over the shaft the flag is thrown, while ou. one side 
is the Third Corps badge (a white diamond with a thr^^leafed 
clover,) and on the opposite side is a masonic emblem. ^ 

While Dr. Calhoun was in the field he organized a MedicW So- 
ciety; he was a correspondent, also, of the New York Timeii\a^^ 
contributed some valuable papers on Military Surgery to the jl^^d- 
ical and Surgical Reporter. 

Very truly yours, 

Mrs. J. Theodore Calhoun.- 

[We have introduced the letter of Mrs. Calhoun — omitting som) 
details in recollection of the day when most of our Society wer( 
present at their nuptials beneath the canopied banner — ^because W 
is an eloquent tribute of the undying affection of a young wife, 



HISTOBT OF ESSEX DISTRICT MEDICAL SOCIETY. 155 

now childless, who loves to cherish the recollections and embalm 
the memory of her first loved and first bom.] 

The following communication from Dr. Calhoun is furnished by 
Mrs. Calhoun, at our request. It contains facts not found in her 
interesting narration and completes the history : 

U. S. A. Transit Hospital, 
New York City, April 14th, 1866. 

Captain C. H. Morgan, U. S. A. : 

In conformity with the requirements of your circular, dated 
March, 1866, 1 have the honor to submit the following synopsis of 
my military history : 

I entered the service in June, 1861, as Assistant Surgeon of the 
Fifth Excelsior (Seventy-fourth New York Volunteer Regiment). 
In August the regiment became attached to the Army of the Po- 
tomac, Second Brigade, Second Division, Third Corps. 

In November I was promoted Surgeon, in which capacity I was 
on duty with my regiment at the siege of Yorktown, the battles of 
" Williamsburg, Fair Oaks, siege of Richmond and Seven Days' 
Battles," and also what was known as " Hooker's Malvern," and 
several other more or less important skirmishes. 
\. I was present, in a like capacity, at the several battles of Bris- 
\p tow Station, Second Bull Run, and Chantilly, of Pope's campaign, 
»di( having several other regiments besides my own in charge, 
iuiet'. The Third Corps, to which my regiment was attached, did not 
cipate in the Antietam campaign. 
I was present with my regiment at the battle of Fredericks- 
rg, and, under the new regulations of the Medical Department, 
i^HOT^'l^s detailed as " Operating Surgeon " of my brigade. 

n January, 1863, 1 passed a satisfactory examination before the 
ting soD^lgular Army Medical Board, and immediately thereafter, with- 
iety ^^^ J solicitation on my part, I was appointed " Surgeon-in-Chief of 
Second Division, Third Corps,'- commanded by Major General 



156 MEDICAL SOOIBTT OP NEW JERSEY. 

Commissioiied Assistant Surgeon of the Regular Army in May, 
I was continued on duty as Surgeon-in-Chief of the Division, and, 
as such, participated in the battle of Chancellorsville, (where Gen- 
eral Berry commanding the division, was killed), and in the sub- 
sequent marches, up to the battle of Gettysburg. 

At Gettysburg the Medical Director of the Corps, Dr. Thomas 
Sims, was called upon to accompany General Sickles to Washing- 
ton, and I was placed on duty as Acting Medical Director of the 
Corps. How well I acquitted myself of the heavy responsibilities 
thus thrown upon me (for the Third Corps had an unusual number 
of wounded), is best told by the fact, that, although at that time 
almost the junior Assistant Surgeon of the Regular Army, I was 
continued on duty as Acting Medical Director of the Corps through 
the subsequent marches of the corps in pursuit of the rebel army, 
including the aflFair at " Wapping Heights," and until it went into 
camp at the Rappahannock, when I rejoined my division. 

During the time I was Acting Medical Director of the Coips, 
and while it was in line of battle on the Antietam, a new and un- 
organized division joined it, the Medical Department of which 1 
completely organized and equipped. 

When the army made the demonstration upon the rebel line on 
" Mine Run," I was present, directing the Medical Department of 
the Division to which I was attached, and which lost heavily. 

In the reorganization of the army, the division became the Fourth 
Division of the Second Corps. I continued the Surgeon-in-Chief 
during the battle of the Wilderness, and until it became consoli- 
dated at Spottsylvania Court House. 

During the n^maindor of that campaign I served as Assistant to 
the Medical Director of the Second Army Corps, and as such, was 
present at the various battles in which that command was engaged. 

In July I was ordered to City Point, and placed in charge of the 
Hospital for Colored Troops of the Army of the Potomac, in which 
capacity I had the care of most of the wounded colored troops 
from the " Bumside Mine Explosion." 



HISTOBT OF ESSEX DISTRICT MEDICAL SOCIETY. 157 

In September, 1864, I was ordered to the Department of the 
East, and placed in command of the "Ward U. S. A. General Hos- 
pital,'' at Newark, New Jersey. While acting as such, I planned 
and constructed a new hospital, its enclosure containing twenty- 
four acres of ground. 

In September, 1865, the hospital at Newark was discontinued, 
and I was placed on duty under the orders of Brevet Brigadier 
General Satterlee, Medical Purveyor U. S. Army, in superintend- 
ing the sales of the medical and hospital property at the U. S. A. 
General Hospitals at New Haven, Conn., Worcester, Massachu- 
setts, Augusta, Maine, and of the Post Hospital at Concord, New 
Hampshire. This duty fulfilled, I was placed in charge of the "U. 
S. A. Transit Hospital" in New York city, where I now am: 

During the time I was continuously on duty in the field, (from 
August, 1861, to September, 1864,) the command with which I was 
on duty was never in an action but that I was present, performing 
the duties of my station. 

I have served respectively upon the stafiFs of Major Generals 
Berry, Binney, Sickles, Humphrey, Mott, Prince, Carr, Hancock, 
French and Graham, to any or all of whom who survive, I feel that 
I may confidently refer, as well as to the several Medical Direc- 
tors of the Army of the Potomac, Second and Third Corps, and 
Department of the East. 

I have the honor herewith to submit the endorsements of those 
of my commanding oflScers whose present address is known to me. 

Very respectfully, your ob't serv't, 

J. Theodore Calhoun. 

ALEXANDER N. DOUGHERTY 

was born January 1, 1822, in Newark, N. J. He was educated at 
Oberlin College, Ohio, and graduated in medicine at the College 
of Physicians and Surgeons, New York city. Entered the mili- 
rary service in 1861, shortly after the battle of Bull Run, having 



168 MEDICAL SOCIETT OF NEW JERSEY. 

been appointed by Governor Olden Surgeon of the 4th New Jer- 
sey Vols. 

We give Dr. Dougherty's experience more in detail, because it 
admirably illustrates the value of the medical staff to our army, 
and of the duties performed by members of the << Essex District 
Medical iSociety." 

This regiment was one of those constituting the 1st New Jersey 
Brigade, under Brigadier General Philip Kearney. September 
SOth, of that year, Dr. Dougherty was examined before the Board 
in Washington, passed as a Brigade Surgeon, and shortly after- 
wards assigned to duty in charge of the medical department of 
the 1st New Jersey Brigade. In February, of the following year, 
he was ordered to report to General Dana, commanding a Brigade 
in the Corps of Observation, lying at Poolesville, Md. In this 
command, which made a part of Sedgwick's Division of the 2d 
(Sumner's) Corps, he went through the Peninsular campaign, being 
at the close of it, by the promotion of Dr. Lidell, U. S. V., to the 
Medical Directorship of the Corps, Sedgwick's Division Surgeon. 
During the campaign, as will appear by the following extracts 
from the books of the medical department of Dana's Brigade, Dr. 
Dougherty was largely instrumental in saving the Army of the 
Potomac from the dreadful effects of the scurvy, he being, so far 
as he knows, the first to call the attention of the authorities to the 
presence of that formidable scourge of armies. 

Under the head of remarks, May 31, occurs the following : 
'' In a report made to Dr. LidelL (Division Surgeon) urged the 
importance of the men having potatoes, dried apples. <fec., furnished 
them, first from the company fund, then as a part of the ration. 
Mentioned the difficulty of procuring these things in suflBcient 
quantity^ as alleged by the Brigade Commissary. Reported names 
of medical officers. Ordered the medical officers to see the mo- 
ment the hos^)ital tents are pitched, that they are supplied with a 
thick flooring of corn-stalks^ or pine or cedar branches^ or tiiat 



HISTORY OP ESSEX DISTRICT MEDICAL SOCIETY. 159 

bedsteads are constructed — some means provided for keeping the 
men oflFthe ground. 

" June 1. — Fight at Fair Oaks Station afternoon of 31st ult., (yes- 
terday) ; 20th Massachusetts and 7th Michigan in ; made next two 
or three days thirteen amputations — ten of thigh, one of leg, one of 
arm, and one of shoulder joint. 

**June 13. — Very lively shelling before five this morning, especi- 
ally about Sedgwick's headquarters, by which one man of Gor- 
man's Brigade was killed. He lay beside a log, and the shell 
struck it, knocking oflF a piece which took oflFthe back of his head ; 
killed him instantly. To-day sent to General Dana an urgent ap- 
peal in behalf of issuing to the men potatoes and dried apples, as 
the scurvy is on the increase. 

"Commented to Dr. Lidell on the great increase in the sick list, 
due partly to the return of patients from hospital not half cured. 

"June 14. — Reported to Dr. Lidell the condition of the Brigade 
as regards scurvy, and urgently solicited attention to it. Stated 
what I had done. 

" Very quiet along the lines last night ; some dodge probably. 
Cat in the meal bag. Heard their drums distinctly this morning. 
My report on scurvy to General Dana has produced immediate 
eflFects ; made a great hubbub. Dr. Smith, from McClellan's, came 
to-day to investigate. ******* 

"June 17. — Urging again the necessity for an ample supply of 
fresh vegetables. Also suggesting a substitution of malt liquor for 
the whiskey ration. 

"June 19. — Massachusetts 19th, twelve marked cases. Forty- 
two with spongy gums. 

"Massachusetts 20th, two hundred and twenty taking potatoes 
for scurvy. 

"Michigan 7th, one hundred and sixty-six do. Four with well- 
marked eruption and swelling. 

" New York 42d, seven cases well marked. Ninety men taking 
preventives." 



r^ 



160. MEDICAL SOCIETY OP NEW JERSEY. 

The following extracts are taken from the " Order and Letter 

Book:" 

" Headquarters Dana's Brigade, Fair Oaks, Va., 

June 16, 1862. 
« Circular. 

" There are at these headquarters six barrels of 

potatoes and some dried apples, for distribution among those who 
have scorbutic symptoms. They will be placed in your hands for 
such use. 1 would have you examine the gums of each man in 
your regiment, and when found spongy, whether other symptoms 
of scorbutus exist or not, I would have him take grated or mashed 
raw potatoes, say a couple of tablespoonfuls, with vinegar, if pos- 
sible three times a day, and to insure his taking it, 1 would have 
him come to the hospital tent for his dose, registering his name, 
and keeping track of him until all symptoms of the disease have 
disappeared. 

"Let every Captain understand that any man with spongy gums 
is at once to present himself for treatment. 

"The apples, also, will be distributed as in your judgment may be 
advisable. If your potatoes hold out, you may give some to the 
patients to cook. Indeed, I would get rid of them before spoiling, 
at all events. 

" To each regimental surgeon. 

" Signed, A. N. Dougherty, Brigade Surgeon. 

" P. S. — You will send for those things at once.'' 

Report made to General Sedgwick, through Dr. Lidell, on the 
General Hospital at the Turner House : 

"Headquarters Dana's Brigade, Fair Oaks, Va, ) 

June 18, 1862. J 
" Dr. Lidell, 

" Sir : As directed, I went this morning to the 

Turner House Hospital, and carefully examined each patient there 
belonging to Sedgwick's Division, sending back to duty at once, all 
such as appeared capable of it, and as to others not yet quite re- 
covered, giving them another week's respite. There are still, as 



HISTORY OP ESSEX DISTRICT MEDICAL SOCIETY. 161 

you will see by the accompanying papers, quite a number pro- 
nounced unfit for service at present, and likely to remain so for 
some time, somq of them being incurable, (consumptive, decrepid, 
&c.) Of course, at the earliest practicable moment, such men will 
be discharged. I would recommend that the men with undoubted 
phthisis be discharged at once, that they may be enabled to see 
home once more, as recovery is quite out of the question. Dr, 
Hayward desires that Lieut. Eiddell, who has been of the utmost 
service to him in the procuring of stores, &c., may be detailed as 
Assistant Quartermaster. Lieut. Riddell is an invalid, having 
lost an arm in the service, and is not yet strong enough to bear 
ihe fetigues of active service. 

" Dr. H. complains that he is greatly straitened in the matter of 
fresh beef and fresh vegetables, finding it almost impossible to pro, 
•cure these articles. He is especially in need of potatoes, where* 
^th to combat the scorbutic symptoms, which so many of the men 
exhibit. 

" It will be observed that the number of patients from Bums' and 
Gorman's Brigades are aflfected with this disease, so that it is ob, 
viously not confined to Dana's Brigade. 

"1 learned from Dr. H.'s books that the number of patients is 
262, exclusive of nurses and guards, who are convalescents ; and 
of this number, 120 belong to Sedgwick's Division, the rest being 
made up from several other Divisions of the army, principally 
Richardson's. This includes the patients at the church a mile be- 
yond. 

" Of these 120, 46 are ordered to return to duty either at once, 
or, in the case of a few, at the end of a week or so. 

" Although not a subject of inquiry committed to me. Dr. H. de- 
sired that I would send along with this report his list of deaths 
up to this date. 

" Respectfully submitted. 

" Signed, A. N. Dougherty, Brigade Surgeon. 

" P. S. — I would recommend the immediate issue of potatoes and 
21 



162 MEDICAL SOCIETY OP NEW JERSEY. 

onions to the hospital, and a quantity of potass bi-tart, to be added 
to the hospital stores. A. N. D." 

In consequence of these representations, the following order was 
issued : 

" Medical Director's Office, Fair Oaks, Va., 

June 19, 1862. 
" Brigade Surgeon J. A. Lidell, 

Medical Director Sedgwick's Division, 

" Sir : You will assemble at the * Adams House' 
Hospital, at 7 o'clock P. M., to-day, as many of the medical offi- 
cers of your Division as can conveniently be brought together, to 
consult and deliberate upon the causes of the diseases now pre- 
vailing in this Corps ; to suggest, to the best of their abil- 
ity, any practicable means of preventing their increase ; to give 
their opinions, from their own observations, of the relative advan. 
tages of treating the sick in the regimental and General Hospi- 
tals, and to advise the Medical Director of the Army, if, in their 
opinion, he can do anything more than has already been done to 
promote the health of the soldiers of this Corps. 
" Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

"J. P. Hammond, Surgeon and Medical Director." 

Just before the battle of Antietam, Dr. Dougherty, who had 
been home for twenty days on sick leave with jaundice, the result 
of the Peninsular campaign, was made Acting Medical Director of 
the 2d Corps ; becoming Medical Director afterwards when the 
army was on its way down to Falmouth. When ^ Grand Divis- 
ions were formed, he was made Medical Director of the Right 
Grand Division, (General Sumner's) composed of the 2d and 9tli 
Corps ; attaining thus a higher and more responsible position than 
was accorded at any time during the war to an officer of the Vol- 
unteer Medical StaflF. 

At the dissolution of the Grand Division organizations, he was 
returned to the 2d Corps, with which he served thenceforward as 



mSTOBT OF ESSEX DISTBIGT MEDICAL SOCIETY. 163 

Medical Director, up to Dec. 2, 1864, when he was ordered by the 
Secretary of War to report to General Hancock, at Washington, 
as Medical Director of the Ist Veteran Corps. In this capacity, 
he presided over the examination of candidates for medical posi- 
tions in the Corps, till the spring of 1865, when he was made 
Medical Director of the Department of West Virginia, in which 
were six General Hospitals, with a total of more than 4,000 beds, 
giving him the rank and pay of a Colonel of cavalry. The close 
of the war soon after, broke up his department with others, and 
he was at length mustered out as supernumerary, Oct. 20, 1865. 
Dr. Dougherty received a shell wound in the groin (a contusion) 
at the battle of Spottsylvania, May 20, 1854, and got a ball 
through his india rubber poncho, Oct. 27, '64 at the battle of Beams 
Station, while acting as an aide to General Hancock, and convey- 
ing orders under fire. For distingushed and meritorious services 
he was twice brevetted, leaving the army with the rank of Brevet 
Colonel, U. S. V,, and with most flattering testimonials from his 
superiors, both medical and military. 

GABBIEL GBANT 

graduated at Williams College, Massachusetts, in the class of 1846, 
and in the College of Physicians and Surgeons in the class of 1851. 
He practiced medicine in Newark, New Jersey, and entered the 
United States service June 13th, 1861, as Surgeon of the Sec- 
ond Begiment, Second Brigade, New Jersey Volunteers, under 
command of General Kearney, and served with the regiment at f 
the first battlQgjf Bull Bun. He was examined kt Washington by 
the United States Army Medical Board, and promoted at the same 
date to Brigade Surgeon of Volunteers, — afterwards designated 
by act of Congress as Surgeon of United States Volunteers. No- 
vember 4, 1861, he was assigned to Palmer's Brigade of Cavalry. 
This brigade organization being abandoned, he was assigned, De- 
cember 12, 1861, to French's Brigade, as Brigade Surgeon, and 
subsequently as Division Surgeon-in-Chief, and served in the bat- 



• 



# 



164 MEDICAL SOCIETY OP NEW JERSEY. 

ties* of Fair Oaks, Gaines' Mills, Peach Orchard Station, Savage 
Station, White Oak Swamp, Malvern Hill, second battle of Bull 
Run, Antietam and Fredericksburg, and attended the wounded at 
Williamsburg and South Mountain. He accompanied Gen. Stone- 
man, as one of his StaflF Surgeons, in the grand reconnoissance of 
March 14, 1862. He organized the Brigade Hospital at Camp 
California, and the Division Hospital at Harper's Ferry. 

On the 18th of February, 1863, he was assigned as Medical Di- 
rector of Hospitals at Evansville, Indiana. While on duty at this 
point, he was sent. May 29th, 1863, by order of General Bumside, 
commanding the Department of the Ohio, to Vicksburg, in charge 
of the steamer Atlantic, to transport to his own hospitals the 
wounded belonging to the State of Indiana. This large steamer 
was fitted up with all the appointments of a large hospital — sur- 
geons, stewards, nurses, medical and surgical supplies. 

At Columbus the steamer was stopped by Gen. Asboth, in com- 
mand at that place, and loaded with a regiment of infantry, a bat- 
tery of artillery, and stores of ammunition. He was sent with them 
ninety miles up the Yazoo River, in the rear of Vicksburg, arriv- 
ing at Sartatia as Blair and Kimball were fighting the rebel Gen- 
eral Johnson. This was the most critical period of the campaign. 
General Grant was investing Vicksburg; Pemberton had come 
out of the city to attack him, and the enemy, with desperation, was 
throwing every available force upon the rear and flank of our 
army. 

t The hot Southern climate, malaria, and inadequate supplies, 
made diflScult the alleviation of the suflferings of thMvounded. The 
medical oflScers suffered extremely, from fatigue and the same de- 
pressing influences of exposure and climate. The services ren- 
dered by the surgeons engaged with the army in the several fights 
in the rear of Vicksburg, will probably never be recorded, for they 
are in the shadow of the grand capitulation. But the toilsome 

* Official Report of J£a^oT General Richardson ; also. General French, at Fair Oaks, An- 
tietam and Frederiokshnrg. 



HISTORY OP ESSEX DISTRICT MEDICAL SOCIETY. 165 

march — the exhausting care of sick and wounded under an almost 
tropical sun, was endured by them cheerfully, in the consciousness 
of deserving well of their country and profession. 

He was present at the bombardment of Vicksburg, and returned 
with the wounded to Indiana, resuming his duties there. 

On the 4th of September, 1863, by order of General Bumside, 
at the request of his Medical Director, Carpenter, he was placed in 
command of the Madison U. S. A. Government Hospital, at Madi- * 
son, Indiana. This institution was just commenced, and by him it 
was completely organized. About seventy buildings were erected 
en echelon, and two thousand and ninety-five beds were oflBcially 
reported. The enlarged accommodations, during the latter part 
of its existence, increased it to three thousand beds. The highest 
number of patients was two thousand seven hundred and sixty, 
principally firom the battle-fields of Georgia and Tennessee. The 
whole number of different patients was seven thousand three 
hundred ; the mortality was one hundred and twenty, being 1.66 
per cent ; the average length of time each patient was in the 
hospital was twelve weeks. After serving a year and a-half in 
this institution, he resigned, January 13, 1865, and was relieved 
from duty February 4, 1866. 

Brevet Brigadier Genera] C. S. Wood, Assistant Surgeon Gen- 
eral U. S. A., thus refers to the management of this hospital, in a 
letter addressed to Dr. Grant : 

" While you were in charge of the Madison General Hospital, a 
very large establishment, your various administrative and profes- 
sional dutieswere performed with eflSciency and to the entire 
satisfaction (Whis office.'' 

EDGAR HOLDBN 

entered the regular service of the United States army at the break- 
ing out of the war in 1861, and, after a short period of hospital 
duty, he was ordered to the frigate Minnesota, as Assistant Sur- 
geon. In a few weeks he was initiated into the realities of war 



166 MEDICAL SOCIETY OP NEW JERSEY. 

by the conflict with the famous iron-clad Merrimac, passing a large 
portion of the time, during the two days' fight, in plying from the 
frigate to the other ships engaged, in attending upon the wounded. 
Upon the close of the engagement, and in the necessary absence of 
the Fleet Surgeon, he was placed in charge of the wounded from 
the Congress, Cumberland and Minnesota, and performed, for sev- 
eral weeks, the duties of the Senior Surgeon of the Fleet. 

He participated in the bombardment of Sewell's Point, and was 
then made Surgeon, in charge of the Squadron Hospital at Nor- 
folk. 

In a few months he was ordered (for instruction of a Volunteer 
Assistant Surgeon into the routine of naval duties), to steamer 
Wyandotte ; thence to Recruiting Station in New York ; thence 
as Surgeon to the second iron-clad afloat, the Passaic. 

The fearful experience of eight or nine months, from untried 
navigation, improper ventilation, iron-impregnated water — causing 
much illness of officers and crew — ^has since resulted in such im- 
provements in iron-clad architecture, as has made the American 
^ Monitor a model of elegance, health and comfort. 

f A disease, very peculiar in its character and symptoms, which 

was called the " iron-clad fever," occurred on all the Monitors 
until these improvements were perfected. 

The storm off Cape Hatteras, in which our colleague, the first 
Monitor, was lost within twenty-five miles of us — ^the initiative iron- 
clad fight at Fort McAllister in Georgia — the subsequent siege of 
Charleston, that resulted in the loss of two of the fleet — ^and the 
illness alluded to, produced by combined impurity of air, improper 
ventilation and arduous duty — completed what might be termed a 
maximum dose of iron-clad experience. 

He was next called to hospital duty, and again recruiting duty 
followed, and he was then ordered to the Pacific squadron ; coun- 
termanded to war service, at his own request, on the steamer Sas- 
sacus. 

A month's service which followed, on an independent cruise in 



HISTOBY OP ESSEX DISTRICT MEDICAL SOCIETY. 167 

the Atlantic for blockade runners, was quickly succeeded by river 
service in the Sounds of North Carolina. 

The fight with the iron-clad ram Albemarle, but for the simul- 
taneous movement of Grant's majestic army on towards Richmond, 
would have been thought a wonderful achievement. It was, in 
truth, the consummation of heroism on the part of the commander, 
F. A. Roe. The attempt to run down the ram — the hand to hand 
fight of an hour's duration, amid the clouds of scalding steam from 
the burst boilers — the agonies of the scalded, combined with the 
usual tumult of battle, and the screams of the wounded — ^have all 
rendered that memorable fight the most terrible of his experience. 

The almost complete disability of the ship rendered a visit north- 
ward imperative, but the demands of war carried him again into 
conflict in the James River, where, in the smnmer of 1864, he was 
placed in charge of the Medical Department of the James River 
Squadron. 

Frequent visits to the battle-fields of Petersburg, and daily con- 
flicts with shore forces, diversified a life full of excitement as well 
as constant and arduous duty. 

Late in the fall, regard for his own health and illness in his 
family, together with the information that he was destined for a for- 
eign station, determined him to resign, which, upon personal ap- 
plication at Washington, he accomplished a few months before the 
close of the war, the ship, of which he was Surgeon, having come 
North for repairs. 

During the remaining months of the war he accepted a position 
on the staff in the Ward U. S. A. Hospital at Newark. 

JOHN J. H. LOVE 

was bom in Harmony township, Warren county. New Jersey, 
April 3, 1833. He was the eldest son of the Rev. Robert Love 
and Ann Thompson Fair. He married the daughter of Judge 
Zenas Crane, of Montclair. He graduated at Lafayette College, 
Easton, Pennsylvania, and took his medical degree in 4he Medical 



168 MEDICAL SOCIETY OP NEW JERSEY. 

Department of the University of New York, and practiced his pro- 
fession for a period of seven years at Montclair before enlisting in 
the United States service. 

He was commissioned Surgeon of the Thirteenth Regiment, New 
Jersey Volunteers, July 19, 1862, and was mustered into the 
United States Service August 25, 1862. 

March 23, 1863, he was assigned to duty as Surgeon-in-Chief of the 
** Third Brigade, First Division, Twelfth Army Corps, Army of the 
Potomac," which duties he performed, in addition to his regimental 
duties, until August 1, 1863, when, under special orders from Corps 
Headquarters, he assumed the position and duties of Surgeon-in* 
Chief, First Division, Twelfth Army Corps. He continued in this 
position until January 28, 1864, when he resigned his commission 
and was honorably discharged from the United States service. He 
was always engaged in field service. 

As a volunteer Surgeon he was sent out by Governor Olden, and 
assisted in the transportation and care of the wounded after the 
battle of Williamsburg, Virginia, May 5, 1862. 

He was present and on duty at the battles of Antietam, Septem- 
ber 17, 1862 ; Chancellorsville, May 1, 2 and 3, 1863 ; Gettysburg, 
July 1, 2 and 3, 1863 ; and assisted in caring for the wounded 
after the battles of " Lookout Mountain" and " Mission Ridge," near 
Chattanooga, Tennessee, in December, 1863. 

The medical history of this war, in Dr. Love's opinion, has de- 
veloped no one fact more prominently than that, to maintain an 
army in an effective condition, a constant and enlightened atten- 
tion must be given by the surgeons and officers to the laws of hy- 
giene. This is also proved by the experience of Dr. A. N. Dough- 
eri5^. Dr. Love further remarks : 

" From ignorance of these laws the majority of the physicians 
commissioned to attend to the wants of the, soldiers, found them- 
selves, when in active service, unable satisfactorily to discharge 
the duties devolving upon them ; particularly was this the case 
with regimental surgeons from civil practice, who had left'their 



HISTORY OP ESSEX DISTRICT MEDICAL SOCIETY. 169 

homes with the idea that their whole duty consisted in treating 
disease and operating. These soon learned that, to prevent sick- 
ness in their commands was the primary object. And now that 
the war is over and they have resumed civil practice, the knowl- 
edge gained of hygienic laws will be used in the prevention and 
amelioration of disease among our citizens. Surgeons in active 
field practice have little or no opportunity to know the results of 
their practice. No matter how interesting the case in its incep- 
tion, when the termination is unknown the facts are useless." 

CHARLES p. J. LEHLBACH 

became Assistant Surgeon of the Seventh Regiment, New Jersey 
Volunteers, June 8, 1863, and Surgeon of the same regiment Octo- 
ber 11, 1864. He remained in the service till the close of the 
war, and was mustered out July 7, 1865. 

He graduated at the College of Physicians and Surgeons, in the 
class of 1856. He served with signal ability; is married and has 
one child. 

LEWIS W. OAKLEY 

was bom in the city of New York, Nov. 22, 1829. His parents' 
names were Samuel Oakley and Abbey Williams. His first wife 
was Henrietta Baldwin, and his second wife, Anna Magie. Had 
two children, named Gertrude Vanderpool and Sarah Davis. 

He graduated at Princeton College, 1849, and at the College of 
Physicians and Surgeons, New York, in the class of 1852, and 
practiced in Elizabeth, N. J., from April, 1854, until May, 1861. 

He entered the service as Assistant Surgeon of the 2d RegimelJt, 
New Jersey Volunteers, May 21, 1861 ; was promoted to the Sur- 
geoncy of the 4th Regiment, New Jersey Volunteers, October 12, 
1861, and transferred to the 2d Regiment,New Jersey Volunteers, as 
Surgeon, Jan. 2, 1862. From this date, he was Surgeon in Chief 
of the 1st New Jersey Brigade, 1st Division, 6tb Corps, until the 
expiration of his term of enlistment 
22 



170 MEDICAL 80GIEIT OF HEW JEB8ET. 

Prom Sept. 12, untU Dec. 1, 1862, he was on hospital duty at 
Burkettsville, Md. In charge of the 6th Corps Hospital daring 
May and June, 1863, at Potomac Creek, Va. ; in charge of the 6th 
Corps Hospital at Gettysburg, Pa., from July 4, 1863, until it 
was consolidated with the other Corps Hospitals, forming the U. 
S. General Hospital at the same place. He remained until Nov. 1, 

1863, when he returned to his command in the Army of the Poto- 
mac. 

He was in all the battles of the Army of the Potomac, beginning 
with the "first Bull Run," and ending mth. the battles of May, 

1864. Mustered out of the service June 21, 1864. He was, 
moreover, on duty as Surgeon at General Hospital at Harrison 
Landing, Va., while the army was stationed near that place during 
the summer of 1862. 

But for a determination not to leave his regiment, with which 
he wa« very populari he would have accepted higher rank, the 
duties of which be almost constantly performed. 

JOSEPH D. OSBOBNE 

was bom at Succa«unna, N. J., Sept. 6, 1833. He is the son of 
Bev. EnoB A* Osborne* He married Miss Kate Bartholp, Jan. 
27, 1862. He received the appointment of Assistant Surgeon U. 
S. Volunteers Aug. 17, 1861, and went out with the 4th Regiment, 
New Jersey Volunteers. He was appointed Surgeon of the 2d 
Regiment, New Jersey Volunteers, in October of the same year, 
and was transferred to the 4th Regiment, New Jersey Volunteers. 
He remained in this regiment till mustered out, Nov. 19, 1864. 

Dr. Osborne was Chief of Brigade by virtue of date of commis- 
sion. Was Assistant Operator of Division in 1863, and in 1864 was 
Operating Surgeon of Division. From July to October of 1863, 
he was executive officer of hospital and in charge of the transfer 
of the wounded at Gettysburg, and from January to July, of 1864, 
he was on duty in the Ward U. S. Hospital in Newark, N. J. 



mSTOBT OF ESSEX DISTRICT MEDICAL SOCIETT. 171 

GEORGE PECK 

was commissioned an Assistant Surgeon in the Navy of the 
United States, Feb. 25, 1851 ; cruised in the West Indies and oflf 
the coast of Central America, in the corvette Cyane, from August, 
1851, until September, 1854, crossing, meanwhile, the Isthmus, at 
Panama, and making the journey to the Pacific by way of Nicara- 
gua and its lakes. He was on recruiting service at the Naval Ren- 
dezvous, at New York, from September, 1854, to October, 1855; 
was examined and found qualified lor promotion, March, 1856 ; 
cruised in the flag ship St. Lawrence on the coast of Brazil and 
the waters of the La Plata, from August, 1856, to May, 1859 ; at- 
tached to receiving ship North Carolina, from July, 1859, to March, 
1860, and reported for duty aboard the Seminole at Pensacola, 
during same month. He cruised in the Seminole on the coast of 
Brazil and waters of the La Plata, returning to the United States 
on the breaking out of the Rebellion. 

Promoted and commissioned as Surgeon, May, 1861; on the 
blockade off Charleston in the following July ; joined the Potomac 
flotilla, which was frequently engaged in action with the rebel bat- 
teries along the Virginia shore. In October, sailed with Admiral 
Dupont's fleet, and joined in the attack upon the rebel batteries at 
Port Royal. After the bombardment of Port Royal, was in the 
Savannah blockade, joined in the expedition against Femandina, 
and after its capture, ordered to the North Atlantic Squadron, 
Admiral Goldsborough, at Hampton Roads. He joined in the at- 
tack upon the rebel batteries at SewalPs Point, and upon Norfolk, 
Va. He was blockading in the waters of the Chesapeake and 
tributaries, until July, 1862, when the Seminole went out of com- 
mission. * 

Was ordered upon the recruiting service in New York the fol- 
lowing August; detached from the Rendezvous Sept., 1864, and 
ordered to the iron-clad Dictator, and joined the North Atlantic 
Squadron, under Admiral Porter, at Hampton Roads. In Sep- 
tember, 1865, transferred from the Dictator to the Yanderbilt, and 



172 MEDICAL SOOIETT OF NEW JEBSET. 

sailed in company with the iron clad Monadnock to the North Par 
cific ; detached from the Vanderbilt in July, 1866, at San Francisco, 
and returned to the Atlantic States by the overland route, arriving 
in September, 1865. He is still in the service. 

WILLIAM HUGH PIERSON 

entered the Navy at the commencement of the war, and is still in 
the service. He was.taken prisoner by the rebels while serving 
on the Water Witch. He is regarded as a deserving officer, and 
a candidate for promotion. 

D. M. SKINNER 

having passed the necessary examination, was appointed an Assist- 
ant Surgeon in the U. S. Navy, in September, 1861. Served one 
month on the receiving ship North Carolina ; six months upon the 
frigate Sabine. During that time the lost Vermont was found, which 
vessel had left Boston for Port Royal, but encountering a heavy 
gale when but a few days out, lost anchor, sails and rudder, and 
drifted about at the mercy of the winds and waves until found by 
the Sabine, when she was assisted in shipping a temporary rudder, 
and finally reached Port Royal in safety. He was about one 
year upon the sloop-of-war Vincennes, attached to the West Gulf 
Squadron, and was then ordered to duty with the army besieging 
Port Hudson, and was placed in charge of the General Hospital 
at. Port Hudson, after the surrender. Early in August, 1863, he 
was ordered to the U. S. steamer Calhoun. This vessel was Ad- 
miral Farragut's flag ship, in the attack upon Port Powell, situated 
at the entrance from Mississippi Sound, into Mobile Bay. April, 
1864, the Calhoun being ordered to New Orleans for repairs, he 
was permitted to return North. In June, 1864, he was ordered to 
the Naval Academy, then located at Newport, R. I., and remained 
there until he resigned, in May, 1865. 

EDWARD DORR GRIFFIN SMITH 

is the son of the late Dr. Lyndon A. Smith. He was bom in 



HIBTOBY OP ESSEX DISTBICT MEDICAL SOCIETY. 173 

Newark, and educated to the profession under the care of his &ther. 

He was appointed Assistant Surgeon, U. S. N., August 12, 1861, 
and immediately proceeded to sea. He spent all the years of the 
war in arduous blockading service. He served on the following 
steamers : 

• Young Rover, from August 6 to October, 1862; Magnolia, from 
October, 1862, to September, 1863; Arkansas, from September, 
1863, to May, 1864; Bermuda, from May, 1865, to November, 
1865. 

He was present at the capture of Fort Morgan, at Mobile. He 
was honorably discharged November 22, 1865. 

CHARLES W. 8TICKNEY 

was born January 4, 1833, near Milford, Pike county, Pennsylva- 
nia, and was the son of Benjamin Stickney, Esq. He studied med- 
icine with William Wetherill, M. D., at Lambertville, Hunterdon 
county, New Jersey, and graduated at the University of Pennsyl- 
vania in the spring of 1858. 

He immediately commenced the practice of medicine at Pomp- 
ton Plains, New Jersey. In the fall of 1859 he married Miss 
Sarah E. Van Ness. 

He entered the United States service August 3, 1863, as Assist- 
ant Surgeon of the Thirty-third Regiment, New Jersey Volunteers, 
to serve three years. After the organization of the regiment, it 
was assigned to the Army of the West, under the command of 
Major General Sherman ; he therefore participated in the succes- 
sion of battles, commencing at Chattanooga, Tenn., May 1, 1864, 
and ending in the fall of Atlanta, Georgia, in September. 

September 27th, by order of Major General Geary, he was or- 
dered for duty at the "Second Division, Twentieth Corps Hospital," 
and there remained through the campaign of General Sherman's 
march to the sea, which was consummated by the taking of Savan- 
nah, December 21, 1864. 

January 27, 1865, he left the city of Savannah with his regi- 



174 MEDICAL SOCIETY OP NEW JBRSBT. 

ment, which was then connected with the left wing of the army 
under command of Major General Slocum, and was with the army 
until it arrived at the Savannah River, when, by orders from 
Major General Slocum, he was directed to take charge of all the 
sick and wounded men belonging to the left wing of the Army of 
Greorgia, and report the same to Savannah. 

There were thirty cases of small-pox, in all stages, which were 
under his special care. In order to separate them he was obliged 
to seize a schooner lying in the river, loaded with sutler stores, 
and to place on board of it the small-pox cases. 

The result of his treatment exhibits the undesirableness of the old 
manner of treatment, by the use of warm, stimulating drinks, and 
hot rooms. These men lay upon the deck of the schooner for want 
of room below, and were sheltered only by pieces of canvas. This 
was on the 6th of February. On the 6th and 7th, a severe rain 
storm was experienced, to which the men were exposed. They 
were provided with no medicine except whiskey, which was occa- 
sionally given. The patients were permitted to drink 'plentifully 
of cold water. They did not reach Savannah until the evening of 
the 8th, when the patients were placed in the " Small-pox Hospi- 
tal." Although subject to these severe exposures, they all recov- 
ered in a few days. 

After remaining in Savannah a few weeks, he joined his com- 
mand at Goldsboro', North Carolina. 

The war having terminated, the regiment was ordered to Wash- 
ington, by way of Richmond, Virginia, where it arrived May 19, 
1865. There he remained a few weeks, when the regiment was 
sent to the State Rendezvous, at Newark, New Jersey, where he 
was honorably discharged, July 17, 1865. 

K B. WHnriNGHAM 

is the son of Bi^op Whittingham, (of the Episcopal Church) of 
Maryland. He served in the Regular Army with great honor and 
efficiency, from October 1, 1861, to November, 1863, when he re- 
agned. 



HISTORT OF ESSEX DISTRICT MEDICAL SOCIETY. 175 

He passed examination — the third in his class — and was assigned 
to the duty of organizing the Alexandria General Hospital. 

He served as Medical Inspector of the Third Corps, and at the 
battle of Gettysburg he was Surgeon of the Second Division of the 
Fifth Corps. As a member of the General Surgical Staff he or- 
ganized the new " Purveying Bureau." 

He always occupied important positions, and made a very val- 
uable medical oflBcer. He has returned to his practice in Millbum, 

ADDISON W. WOODHULL, 

commissioned Assistant Surgeon Fifth New Jersey Volunteers, 
August 23, 1861; commissioned Surgeon Ninth New Jersey Vol- 
unteers, February 6, 1862 ; commissioned Lieutenant Colonel by 
brevet, "for meritorious conduct in the field," March 13, 1865. 

He was in active service with the Fifth New Jersey Volunteers 
during its operations with the Army of the Lower Potomac, and 
was with the Ninth New Jersey Volunteers in all the principal 
marches and battles that occurred subsequent to his appointment 
in that regiment, in North and South Carolina, and about Rich- 
mond and Petersburg, in Virginia ; and at last, again in North Car- 
olina, with the army which joined Sherman just prior to the final 
surrender of the rebel armies. He was mustered out at the ex- 
piration of his term of service. 

He was once seriously wounded, July 27, 1862, being struck by 
three balls ; and again, slightly, May 6, 1864. 

A full account of his services, also of many others alluded to in 
this historical sketch, will be found in the forthcoming work of Mr. 
John Y. Foster. The wide known ability of the writer, and his 
ample materials, insure the public a most valuable and exhaustive 
history. 

JEREMIAH A. CROSS 

was born at Sharon, Schoharie county. New York ; his parents 
were Dennis Cross and Elizabeth Doucks. He married Evelina 
Van Giesen, of Montclair, Essex county, New Jersey. 



176 MEDICAL SOCIETY OP NEW JERSEY. 

He graduated at the Albany Medical College, New York, and 
commenced practice August 1, 1856. 

He entered the service of the United States as Contract Sur- 
geon, July 10, 1862, at the " U. S. A. General Hospital, Newark, 
New Jersey," (afterwards the " Ward U. S. A. General Hospital, 
Newark, New Jersey,' ) and continued until December 19, 1863, 
except for a period of about two months, from the last of August to 
the last of October, 1863, when he was transferred to Beaufort, 
South Carolina. 

On the 19th December, 1863, the contract was canceled at his 
own request, and on the same day he entered the service in the 
Provost Marshal's Bureau, as Examining Surgeon of the Board 
of Enrollment of the Fifth Congressional District of New Jersey, 
and continued until the suppression of recruiting and drafting, 
June 15, 1865. 

Many others, besides your historian, repeatedly oflFered their 
services for temporary duty, after several bloody engagements. 
The services of several were accepted, chiefly those who after- 
wards entered service at the " Ward U. S. Hospital." 

OUR PRESENT DUTIES. 

In the face of this record of heroism, self-abnegation and patriot- 
ism, and of the heroic examples of those who died for their country, 
as well as companionship with the faded and antiquated relics of 
several generations of medical ancestors, little seems important to 
us individually except that we faithfully perform our duties to the 
generation which Providence calls upon us to serve. 

It will be remembered that our Society began with eleven mem- 
bers. Two more were added a month afterwards ; the next year 
three ; nine the year following, and one in 1713. This year two 
were rejected on account of the lack of professional attainment. 
This proves the regard of our medical ancestors for maintaining 
the status of acquirements. At the end of the first ten years the 
society numbered about forty, and it has but about one hundred 



HISTORT OP ESSEX DISTRICT MEDICAL SOCIETY. 177 

now. Fifty years is little in the history of a nation, but it is an 
age in view of changes and accomplishments. 

Newark in 1816, as before said, had less than five thousand in- 
habitants. To-day, it probably has over one hundred thousand. 
Its latest Directory contains the names of eighty physicians. In 
that time probably three or four supplied all its medical necessities. 

The whole of what is now the county of Essex had not probably 
double the number of inhabitants which Newark has alone. 

Far greater changes have taken place in the world of science. 

Upon our inauguration day, all that was then known of chemis- 
try could be printed in a thin volume. The revelations of the 
stethescope, the microscope, the opthalmocscope, the laryngoscope 
and speculum had never been made. Veratrum, chloroform, the 
preparations of iodine and the alkaloids had not been discovered. 
Nothing had been known of the " pathies," such as homoepathy 
electropathy, hydropathy, and motorpathy, for each of them have 
produced some modification and have taught us something. The 
art of healing gains advantage from innovations and systems, so 
called ; for each of them is based upon some truths, often greatly 
magnified by the genius and industry of its advocates. 

Now pathology, physiology and chemistry have each grown into 
distinct sciences. It requires far difierent education and advan- 
tages to learn even what is now known, in order to an entire ap- 
preciation of medical knowledge in its present stage of progres- 
sion. The period of superstition, of the' purely theological, 
and, again, of the metaphysical, has passed away. We are called 
upon, now, to deal with the positive. Inductions from well ascer- 
tained /ac^^ only will satisfy the advanced inquirer of the present 
day. Probably in every age it has appeared to the honest in- 
quirer sometimes that there was no more to learn. Doubtless 
the next half century will advance us quite as rapidly and as far 
as has the last. It depends upon us whether we be in the fore- 
ground of medical investigation and progress, or be reported 
among the stragglers. Who would feel competent to practice 
23 



178 MEDICAL SOCIETY OP NEW JERSEY, 

medicine if forbidden to use the speculum? to put an ear to the 
chest ? to analyse the urine ? to examine the uterus, as modern 
science has taught us? Who would go back to the teachings of 
Thomas' Practice, upon which our forefathers in medicine relied ? 

The golden age is not in the past or in the future, but is all 
about us. We live in it. Whether we live up to it will depend 
upon ourselves — ^upon you — ^it will depend principally upon the 
youi^ men who are still full of hope and buoyancy. This is the pe- 
riod of labor. Now is the time to do our life-work. 

There are investigations to which your tastes, habits of think- 
ing, and opportunities of observation naturally incline you. Follow 
these leads. If you cannot be eminent in every department of 
medical science, in this day of wonderfal expansion, till it seems 
to cover all the physical sciences, determine to fathom some well 
of truth — ^to feel bottom somewhere. Work while the day lasts for 
work, for there will soon come a period in which men will not find 
it possible to bring up arrears. 

Most of you have enjoyed advantages very much greater than 

the young men of the last generation, and, oh! what infinite ad- 

» 

vantages over the young men of 1816. Many of you have spent 
much time in military hospitals, the camp, or upon battle-fields. 
Many have formerly crossed to Europe to find such opportunities 
as you have enjoyed. The limit of inquiry will never be reached 
in this world, however near it may sometimes appear. No branch 
of medicine can be exhausted by any one in a single life. There are 
fields of inquiry not yet entered upon — golden veins not yet 
touched. One generation constantly crowds the next, and '< pass- 
ing away" is written upon all earthly scenes. 

It was the custom in Scotland, as a warning, in case of invasion, 
fi>r one to seize a blazing torch or burning brand, and run with it 
to the next village, when it was caught up by another, who con- 
veyed it to the next, and so on till the remotest hamlet was speedily 
reached. Thus it is left to us to record the traditions of the past 
and the example of the present, and to labor towards the largest 



HISTOBY OP ESSEX DISTRICT MEDICAL SOCIETY. 179 

accomplishments of our generation, that the one which succeeds ns 
may be profited by our progress and investigations, and be ani- 
mated by our example. 

The other day, it will be seen, others lived in our houses, drove 
through our streets in their round of professional duties, and soon 
we, too, must give place to those who succeed us. 

As soon as the grave closes over us the questions of worldly ac- 
cumulation will be of little importance. It will be asked were we 
faithful to every trust and obligation ? Did we perform our whole 
duty to our patients, to the profession, and to society ? Did we do 
all that we could to advance the interests of the profession ? Did 
we perform our duties fearlessly and conscientiously? If so, we 
shall be pronounced by the future medical historian, " good and 
fidthful servants;" if not, we must be written faithless to our 
brethren and to God. 

PRESERVE HISTORY. * 

Your historian has been constantly reminded, that if he had 
undertaken this work a few years ago, he could have obtained 
abundant material which is now buried forever. No time will 
come in which to write history so desirable as to-day. 

It is the duty of each generation to preserve the unrecorded his- 
tory of the past. 

" Gather your rosebuds while you may, 

Old Father Time is flying, 
And the rose which blooms to-day. 
To-morrow may be dying." 

If each county in the State will collect now all that can be rescued 
from oblivion, a very valtcable history of the medical m£n who have 
lived in Jfew Jersey could be prepared^ a history wMch would in- 
crease in value as years roll on. 

We have devoted much time, and engaged in considerable cor- 
respondence in order to fill blanks and obtain accurate data. 
That every day adds something, only proves that there must be 



180 MEDICAL SOCIETY OF NEW JEBSE7. 

many defects, mistakes and omissions. They cannot be avoid- 
ed. What is written will suggest to readers, who will won- 
der why more was not obtained. It is easier to detect mistakes 
and to blame, than to appreciate the real difficulties of collecting 
history from oral testimony. 

The most successful eflFort will induce as much of blame as 
praise. Nor are we insensible to either. We have earnestly en- 
deavored to bring up our history to 1866 so completely, that the 
historian of 1916 will find little to glean jfrom the preceding pe- 
riod, except what perhaps this publication may develop. The 
officers of the District Medical Society for the County of Essex will 
gladly receive and carefiiUy preserve, and in due time publish any 
additional facts which this historical sketch may suggest. There 
are important facts almost but not quite within the reach of your 
historian, which are probably known to some of the readers of this 
paper. 

We design to propose plans to the State and District Societies, 
by which our past history shall be collected, and our present and 
future preserved. If successful, it will promote the unification, 
harmony, efficiency and influence of the profession, and tend to ad- 
vance the interests of all our communities. 

CONCLUSION. 

Your historian has endeavored to perform his duty as well as he 
could with the material which he could find. He has designed to 
omit no subject of inquiry into the past which would tend to invig- 
orate and to energize us for further investigation and duty. 

*' Art is long, but time is fleeting, 

And our hearts though strong and brave, 
Still like muffled drams are beating 
Funeral marches to the grave.*' 

Let it not be said that during the first decade of the second semi- 
centennial period, there was no perceptible progress; no scientific 
results. The centennial historian of nineteen hundred and sixteen 



HISTORY OF ESSEX DISTRICT MEDICAL SOCIETY. 181 

ought to be able to point to it as the golden period of its history. 
The " District Medical Society for the County of Essex," will be 
just what its individual members make it. We may make it very 
valuable to each other and the world, or of little value to any. 

We are reminded that the generation which succeeded the one 
which inaugurated the Society, is passing its period of activity. 
It has done its work. It seeks repose, and is quite willing to 
pass the labor and responsibility along to the younger generation. 
Let the Essex District Medical Society have a history worthy of 
record. What higher mission than ours ? What pathway of in- 
vestigation leads to results so satisfactory, so ennobling? Under 
the inspiration of this record, your historian takes his leave with 
high hopes and ardent expectations. 



IITDEX: 



Abernertby, Dr 140 

AndroM, Gen 102 

Akeri) Oecar J., 183 

Arentf, Jacob 81 

Arms, S.E 113 

Army Record 143 

Babbitt, Daniel 138 

Berkeley and Carteret 78 

Beektnan, Dr. ...» 126 

Baldwin, Mliton 146 

Burnet, William 85 

Brock, Qen 80 

Brientnall, J. H. H 147 

Brumley, J. D 146 

Brown, Wm.M 186 

Brantford 78 

Bttshe 180 

Budd, John 96 

Budd, Bernard 96 

Budd, John 96 

Budd, Berne W 97 

Badd, Charles 100 

Budd, Berne 100 

Carteret, Philip 78 

Oampfield, Jabei f. 84 

Oampfield, Abraham 129 

Oampfteld, Robert 129 

Oalhoun, J. T.« » 147 

Clark, Abraham*. 125 

Clark, Daniel A 185 

Clark, Thomas. »..« «.«..«. 125 

Clark, J« Henry. ..«....«« 76 

Clarke fipbraim « 126 

Claik, J. Qoion 126 

Obelwood, John*. 106 



Chetwood, George 106 

Coe, George 108 

Condit, John 87 

Condit, Peter 87 

Condit, Samnel 87 

Condit, Charles 89 

Condit, J. B., D.D 88 

Condit, Silas 88 

Condit, Enos 89 

Condit, J. 8 » . 89 

Condict, Lewis 90 

Condict, Nathan 90 

Condict, Silas 90 

Condict, Lewis, Jr 90 

Coles, Abraham 107 

Corwin, J. A 118 

Cook, Stephen B.... 108 

Chapman, Dr 109 

Cross, J. A 175 

Craig. David 140 

CraigjD.S 140 

Cutter, J. D 146 

Darby, John 79 

Darby, Henry White. 80 

Darcy, Patrick 103 

Darcy, John 108 

Darcy, John S 103 

Davis, J. A 105 

Dayton, Gen 94 

Delano, Jease *.. 181 

Deancy Dr 84 

Discoveries in Medicine 177 

Dodd,J.S 104 

Dodd,Amti 106 

Dodd,Bethael L 118 



HISTORY OP ESSEX DISTRICT MEDICAL SOCIETY. 



183 



Drake, Dr 140 

Dickmson, Jonathan D. D 79 

Dougherty, A. N 157 

Elmer, J. C 136 

Elizabeth 78 

Ellison, William 128 

Essex Medieal Union 123 

Eyrich, C 113 

Fairchild, Stephen 80 

Fairchild, R. V. W. 80 

Farrand, James 84 

Frelinghuysen, Hon. Theo 90 

Frame, John 134 

Francis, J, W 86 

Foster, JohnY 175 

Freeman, J. Addison 138 

German Hospital 132 

Goble, Luther 132 

Goble, J.G 132 

Goble, John 133 

Grant, G 163 

Grover, Stephen 109 

Grover, Lewis C 109 

Griffith, John 84 

Griffith, Thomas 85 

Griffith, William 85 

Guilford,— 79 

Gibbons, William 93 

Hartwell, Cyrus 80 

Hall, L. A 113 

Hayes, Samuel 126 

Hayes, James 127 

Hais, Robert 86 

Halflted, Robert 100 

Halsted, C 101 

Halsted, O. S 102 

Halsted, Thaddeus 102 

Halsted, Wm 102 

Hosack, David 109 

Hilyer, Asa.. 95 



Historic Period 112 

Holden, E - 165 

Jackson, J.B 128 

Johnson, Samisel 84 

Johnson, Uzal 124 

Jelf, Miss 82 

Johnson Dr 109 

Johnson, W 110 

Kearney, P 101 

Kissam, R. A 127 

Kitchell, Timothy 81 

Lee, James 129 

Lehlbach, C. F. J 169 

Love, J. J. H 167 

Lyon, Dr 108 

Lyon Matthew C 102 

Lyon, Jas. L 103 

Lyon, Samuel Kuyphers 103 

Marsh, S. C 140 

Mercer, W. T 113 

Medical Association 122 

Medical Union 123 

McNevin Dr 130 

McWhorter, Rev. Dr 85 

McDowell, Jno. Rev. Dr 94 

Manning, Samuel 128 

Mitchell, Samuel 109 

Milford Colony 78 

3Hill8,A.M 146 

Michlau, Paul 82 

Martin, David 120 

Morris, Dr 151 

Munn, Jephtha 107 

Munn, Isaac 107 

Morse, Joseph 90 

Morse, Robert 90 

Morse, Isaac 90 

Necrology 128 

Newark, in 1816 107 

Naval Record 148 



184 



mSTOBT OP ESSEX DISTRICT MEDICAL SOCIETY. 



Newark Medical Association... 122 

Newark City Hospital 122 

Nichols, Jas 129 

Nichols, Whitfield. . . ^. 130 

Nichols, Isaac A 130 

Nichols, E.P 130 

Oakley, L. W 169 

Ogden, Col. A 101 

Ogden, Rev.Dr 85 

Ogden, Jacob 85 

Orton, James 81 

Orton,S. H 146 

Ogden, Samuel 116 

Osborne, J. D 170 

Our Present Duties 176 

Pierson, Abraham 78 

Pierson, Isaac 95 

Pierson, Matthias 95 

Pierson, William 95 

Pierson, Wm. Jr 95 

PierBon,KA 134 

Pierson, Cyrus 95 

Pierson, W. H 172 

Parsippany 78 

Peck, Creorge 171 

Papers Read 118 

Pigot , Edward 84 

Pigneron, N. P 84 

Pennington, S. H 113 

Presidents 117 

Pennington, Got 124 

Quimby, Joseph 128 

Queenstown 80 

Bankin, William 132 

Biggs, C. 8 85 

Beeves, A 113 

Bowe,E 150 

Boe,P. A 167 

Bu8h,Dr 125 

Sdden, J. Carey 139 



Seaman Valentine 127 

Scott, James 133 

Secretaries «.. 118 

Soldiers' Home 122 

Satterlee, Gen 157 

Skinner, D.M 172 

Shippen, Dr 125 

Stickney, C. W 173 

Shults, G.John 81 

Steel, Dr 108 

Steel, Thos 108 

Smith, L.A 141 

Smith, E.D. G 172 

Squier, Dr 108 

Taylor, Jno 131 

Thomas, L. G 137 

Thomas, Frederick 137 

Turner, William 84 

Van Courtland, Dr 151 

VanGiesen,RE 145 

VanGeisen, H. C 145 

Vredenburgh, P 80 

Ward, Jno 127 

WardjJohnF 128 

Ward,S.L Ill 

Ward,E.D HI 

Ward, W.S 128 

Ward, George 128 

Ward, Arthur 128 

Ward,LM 128 

Ward, Edward 128 

Ward, J. B 128 

Williams, John D 123 

Wickes, S 113 

Wi8ter,Dr 129 

Wilder, A. H 189 

Webster, Dr 151 

Whittingham, Dr 174 

Woodhull,A.W 175 

Wurts, Samuel 81 



Report of the Standing Committee. 



A period of sixteen months has intervened since the last meeting 
of the Medical Society of New Jersey. These months have been 
distinguished by an unusual degree of health throughout the State 
The Society will discover in what follows in this report, that in no 
portion of the State have its medical men been called to meet with 
prevailing epidemics of any kind — scarlet fever, pertussis, rubeola 
and diphtheria have been unusually rare ; the latter, which a few 
years since excited so much interest and attention, has almost en- 
tirely disappeared from notice. Cerebro-spinal meningitis is re- 
ported to have appeared in but one locality. Fevers, intermittent 
and continued, are noticed to a limited extent. Cholera, so generally 
looked for, invaded a few localities, but to an extent less general 
than had been apprehended. 

Reports have been received from each of the District Societies 
of the State, excepting those of Mercer and Middlesex. 

During the last summer Asiatic Cholera appeared in the coun- 
ties of Hudson, Essex, Union, Burlington, Camden, Cumberland 
and Gloucester. 

In Hudson county, Dr. Varick, the reporter, notices three cases 
as having occurred in Jersey City, two of them imported, and one 
of local origin, and remarks that in all the previous epidemics of 
this disease, Jersey City has suffered less, in proportion to its popu- 
lation, than any other place in its vicinity. There were two cases 
at Bergen Point, one fatal, the subject dying in six hours. Hudson 
City suffered quite severely with the disease. . The town is situ, 
ated on Bergen Ridge, elevated about one hundred and fifty feet 
24 



186 MEDICAL SOCIETY OF NEW JERSEY. 

above tide water. In June, 1866, the disease first appeared at the 
works of the Lodi Poudrette Manufacturing Company, located on 
the meadows on the west bank of the Hackensack River. About 
sixteen deaths occurred, when the place was vacated. The weather 
was warm and the atmosphere was st-^aming, pai fcicularly at n^'ght. 
The putrifying night soil impregnated the whole atmosphere and 
everything which the workmen ate and drank. 

"July 18," we quote from the excellent local report of Dr. Cu''- 
ver, " wind west, tempei-ature 85 deg. in the daytime ; hot and 
steamy night air ; meats spoiled with inconvenient rapidity ; five 
or six deaths occurred at this time." Among these the following 
is noticed : A wealthy family, of fastidiously cleanly habits, suf- 
fered from choleia, superinduced by the intolei able stench and ef- 
fluvia evolved from the putrifying carcass of a dead horse, a few 
rods to the windward of their i esidence. and; through oflScial neg- 
lect, left unburied for more than a week. At length a poor Ger- 
man was induced to remove and bury the oflFensive mass. He was 
taken with cholera asphyxia, and died the same night. 

August 29th, 30th, and 31st, the thermometric and hygrometric 
state of the atmosphere being similar to that of July 18th, four 
cases — all fatal — occurred. The victims drank from shallow vvel?s, 
the surface water of which was noticeably unpalatable. They 
breathed an air redolent of filth and corruption. 

During the last days of September twelve cases occurred, within 
a circumscribed area, having a clay sub-soil overlaid with muck, 
and always wet and mirey, except during a protracted drought. 
This area contained the filthiest alley in Hudson City. A bad 
smelling place at a^^ times, the stench at this time was sickening 
and unbearable. Foul carrion was left exposed and unheeded by 
the inhabitants ; shallow wells supplied them with water, drained 
jfrom privy vaults, pig pens and surface soil alike abominable. A 
sluggish east wind prevailed, beaiing from the cities lying to the 
eastward a foecal odor distinctly cognizable along the eastern brow 
of the hill. The thermometer ranged from 65 to 78 deg. The 



REPORT OF THE STANDING COMMITTEE. 187 

hygrometer showed a damp atmosphere throughout the day, reach- 
ing the dew point about sunset. The night was foggy and suflFo- 
cating. The disease ceased after thorough disinfecting measures 
were adopted, and did not return. 

On the 11th of October, under a similar atlnospheric condition, 
the disease appeared in another locality, in a tenement house, 
crowded by tenants living in uncleanness. One of the stories was 
occupied by a family where the carpet on the floor had not been 
removed or shaken for twelve or fourteen years. The walls and 
ceilings had not been cleaned or whitewashed since the house was 
erected, and all the surroundings were as foul and vile as could be 
conceived. Fourteen deaths occurred. The authorities caused 
the house to be vacated and purified. The disease disappeared 
from the vicinity in seventeen days. 

In each of these outbreaks of the malady there was a coincidence 
of the local with an atmospheric cause. The theory of importation 
is regarded by Dr. Culver as far-fetched and improbable. He fur- 
ther notices the fact that, simultaneously with the cholera, there 
appeared other diseases dependent upon a putrefactive origin, such 
as puerperal fever, diarrhoea, dysentery and cholera infantum. 

In Newark, Essex county, containing a population of about 
eighty thousand, twenty cases were reported by the Board of 
Health, the most of which were fatal. In this city the cases were 
not confined to specific localities, nor did they seem dependent 
upon poisonous and corrupt local influences. The streets afiected 
are healthy, and the most of them on high ground, and far enough 
apart to preclude the idea of contagion. The city was carefiiUy 
cleansed and thoroughly disinfected. Four or five deaths occurred 
in rapid succession in one house. It was vacated and cleaned, and 
the clothing left by the patients destroyed. The disease spread no 
farther in that neighborhood. In Orange one case occurred in a 
man who attended the funeral of a Mend, who had died of the dis- 
ease in Newark. The case was fatal. 

In Elizabethport, Union county, five cases occurred in the month 



188 MEDICAL SOCIETY OP NEW JERSEY. 

of June, ill a very limited and filthy locality, which was promptly 
cleansed and disinfected. The disease was arrested, and did not 
again appear. 

In Burlington city there were seventeen cases, fourteen of which 
were fatal. The earliest cases were located in diflFerent parts of 
the town. About one-half had their origin in two families who 
used the water from a very foul well. These cases were very ma- 
lignant. After cleansing the well and the water was no longer 
used, the disease ceased its ravages. In 1854 the cholera raged 
with great fatality in the Burlington county Poor-House, but dur- 
ing the past season not one latal case was seen. Thorough clean- 
liness was observed, and a careful supervision enforced in regard 
to diet, with a liberal use in case of bowel complaints of the Tr. of 
Op. Camphor and Capsicum. This mixture arrested every case of 
diarrhoea, of which there were the usual number at that season of 
the year. 

The city of Camden was also scourged by the disease. Thirty- 
nine cases were reported, thirty of which were fatal. Twenty-five 
deaths also occurred in a suburb immediately adjacent to the city 
limits. The Committee has received a full report of its history 
from Dr. Cooper, the Reporter of the District Society, and from 
Dr. Jno. R. Stevenson, together with complete meteorological ob- 
servations for the months of June. July, August, September and 
October. Dr. Stevenson remarks, that the city of Camden, con- 
taining a population of eighteen thousand, was, probably, before 
any steps were taken to secure its cleanliness, as filthy, in compar- 
ison with its size, as any city in the Union. The drainage was 
very imperfect; the cesspools being very shallow, owing to the 
water rising to within a lew feet of the surface, and in parts of the 
town inhabited by the poorer classes, full and overflowing on the 
surface of the ground. 

Stringent and eflScient measures were adopted by the city author- 
ities, who acted under the advice of the medical men, for the care- 
ful sanitary improvement of the town, which were attended with 



REPORT OP THE STANDING COMMITTEE. 189 

the most manifest benefit. The disease, as it was experienced in 
Camden, was terribly fatal, but was confined to the lowest class of 
the population, for the reason that the local influences to which 
they were subjected, were so unfavorable. The experience of the 
year in this town, as well as that of the other towns named in this 
report, afford convincing evidence that cholera ought to be pre- 
vented by a removal of the causes which tend to develop the dis- 
ease, and that, in almost all cases, it may be arrested and put out 
by properly and promptly cleansing and disinfecting the infested 
districts. 

The history of the disease in Cumberland county, as compared 
with that given in the previous part of this report, is somewhat 
anomalous. About forty cases are reported in this county; nearly 
half proved fatal. The principal seat of its invasion was Bridge- 
ton. It was here confined to a single locality, not unhealthy in its 
site or its surroundings, and yet every case was traceable, more or 
less directly, to this source. The disease involved two or three 
families only. The first case was that of a merchant, the head of 
the family, who, after suffering with the usual premonitory symp- 
toms for a few days, was seized, on September 25th, with cholera, 
and died in two days. His two children, aged ten and twelve 
years, were then taken down, and, after being severely ill, eventu- 
ally recovered. On the 30th, a young man in a neighboring house, 
was attacked with the malady and died in about nine hours. On 
the next day another young man, strong and vigorous, which the 
first named was not, living in the same house, was seized with the 
cholera symptoms, and died in forty-eight hours. Within a few 
days seven others of the family were stricken down, all of whom 
recovered. Six days after the death of the first-named case, a lady 
who was at the house nursing in the family, complained of diar- 
rhoea, which terminated in fatal cholera on the fourth day. On 
the next day a woman in the same family, who had washed some 
of the infected clothing, was taken suddenly ill, and died in less 
than twenty-four hours — making fifteen cases in all, each associated 



190 MEDICAL SOCIETY OP NEW JERSEY. 

with or members of two families, six of Vhom died. Out of the 
limited district, distinguished by these cases, the disease did not 
present itself. Dr. Elmer, Jr., remarks in his report, that no ade- 
quate cause for the invasion of the disease was apparent. The 
families were refined and of cleanly habit. The water from the 
well did not diflFer from that of other wells, and, upon chemical 
analysis, gave no evidence of impurity. 

In Gloucester county two cases occurred, which jdelded to treat- 
ment. 

In the review of this history of cholera during the year, we find 
reported : 

In Hudson county, - - - - 57 cases. 

*< Essex, 20 " 

" Burlington, 17 " 

" Camden, 64 " 

" Cumberland, - - - - 40 . " 

" Union, 5 " 

** Gloucester, 2 " 

205 « 

As in some of the reports the deaths alone are given, we may in- 
fer from the reports that about three hundred cases occurred in 
the State during the last season. (The Committee is not informed 
whether the disease was met with in Mercer or Middlesex coun- 
ties, as we have no report from them.) 

The review also warrants the following conclusions : 

1st. As a rule, the specific poison of cholera is intensified and 
brought into activity by neglect of proper drainage, and by the ac- 
cumulation of putrid vegetable and animal matter. 

2d. After its production it is more or less infectious or portable. 

3d. A damp atmosphere, associated with a high temperature, 
intensifies the disease. 

4th. It can be arrested and " stamped out." 

5th. Opium, calomel, camphor and alcoholic stimulants, with 



REPORT OP THE STANDING COMMITTEE. 191 

external heat and rubefacients, have been the chief remedial reli- 
ance in the treatment of the affection. 

Intermittent fevers have prevailed to a limited extent. Dr. 
Cooper more particularly notices this form of disease in Camden 
county, where, in many localities it has been much more frequent 
than in former years, while typhoid fever is now seldom seen. 

Be remarks that it is a matter of common observation that q jin- 
ine, to be eflScient as a remedy, must be used in much larger doses 
than was considered necessary in former years, and repetitions in 
its administration must be resorted to in order to prevent the con- 
stant tendency to a recurrence of the attack. 

In Sussex county, malarial diseases as compared with former 
years, has been more common ; not confined to particular localities 
or accounted for by any apparent cause. 

Remittent fevers were common in Jersey City in the spring and 
autumn of 1866, generally mild, interspersed with these, typhoid of 
a severe type, was met with, rarely, however, proving fatal. 

In Burlington county, Dr. Coleman states that the intermittent 
type is now established in that district. " I have not seen," says 
he, " a case of typhoid or remittent fever in three years, but in- 
sidiously, and often obscurely, the intermittent type, giving char- 
acter to almost all ailments, and rendering them amenable to quin- 
ine, to an extent unknown for the last thirty years." In rheuma- 
tism he now finds quinine the best remedy at his command. 

As remarked at the commencement of this report, scarlet Jever 
and diphtheria have been seldom met with. A few cases of the 
former, in a malignant form, were seen in Paterson during the last 
winter. They were treated, as the reporter states, with sulphite 
of soda, with satisfactory results. Dr. Marcy, of Cape May coun- 
ty, informs the Committee that diphtheria has become an endemic 
disease in that region. He sees more or less of it every month. 
The disease prevailed in a malignant and very fatal form a year or 
two since, and now the form he terms diphtheroid is left behind. 
He has seen a few severe cases during the year, one fatal, combined 



192 MEDICAL SOCIETY OP NEW JERSEY. 

with scarlet fever. He remarks, with regard to the milder form, 
" 1 do not know whether it is so elsewhere, where diphtheria has 
prevailed as a severe epidemic, that this modified form remains, 
after the other has subsided, but this I know, that I never saw the 
same form of sore throat until since the terrible scourging we had 
with this terrible disease. The symptoms are precisely the same 
as in the true disease, the only difference being, that the exudation 
is in isolated spots and not fully organized, it is never fatal." 

The Committee alludes to the occasional notice of hooping cotigh 
only for the purpose of noticing the use made in the affection of 
the bromide of ammonium and potassium. It seems to exert a 
very decided effect upon the cough. In the hands of a member of 
the Committee, it has in some cases checked itie stridor almost im- 
mediately, and put a stop to the disease. In other cases it has re- 
lieved the intensity of the cough without effectually arresting it. 

We notice a few cases of special interest : Dr. Marcy relates 
the case of a boy ten years of age, suffering with typhoid remittent 
fever. He had all the fatal symptoms usual in that fever — picking 
the bed-clothes, delirium, subsultus, involuntary passages, hiccough, 
deafness, and, he thought, blindness. He came through the attack 
on half a-pint of whiskey per day, together with Carb. Ammo, and 
Snake Root almost ad libitum. He is now well. 

Dr. Pierson, Jr., reports a case of epilepsy, essentially relieved 
by the bromides. The case is that of a young man, highly edu- 
cated, who was seized with his first epileptic convulsions at twenty- 
five years of age. He had been troubled from early puberty with 
excessive nocturnal emissions. He was subjected to a variety of 
treatment during a number of years without satisfactory results, 
until he was put upon the use of the bromides, after the formula of 
Brown Sequara. Up to this time he had one hundred and seventy- 
three convulsions, the longest interval between any two had been 
twenty days. The last convulsion, previous to the use of the bro- 
mide, was on the 3d of August, 1865. The next was on the 26th 
of September — interval fifty-four days. In November he had three. 



* REPORT OF THE STANDING COMMITTEE. 193 

In January, 1866, the dose of the remedy was doubled. He had 
eight seizures during the year, much lighter than formerly, and not 
succeeded by prostration. The nocturnal emissions are entirely 
relieved. He is at present in vigorous health, and actively en- 
gaged in business. A foil notice of the case is appended to this 
report. 

An illustration of the quantity of opium which may be borne 
under the endurance of excessive pain, is afforded in the history of 
a case, by Dr. C. W. Larison, of Hunterdon county, who had the 
professional charge of a gentleman, a farmer, about fifty years of 
age. He had previously known him for about eight years, during 
which time he was a stout, well-proportioned man, well calculated 
for the endurance of hardship, and well inured to hard labor. 
Weight about ©ne hundred and seventy-five pounds. When called 
to see him he was very feeble, emaciated, and mostly confined to 
his bed. He found, upon inquiry into the history of his case, that 
about four months previously ho was suddenly seized with a severe 
lancinating pain in the right hip, which lasted for an hour, and 
then gradually passed down the thigh and abated. He felt as 
well as usual the next day till about the same hour, when he was 
again similarly affected. The same symptoms recurred for the two 
following days, when he called in a physician, who treated him 
for periodical neuralgia without success. Notwithstanding the use 
of tonics, alteratives, anodynes and counter-irritants, his appetite 
and strength continued to fail, until he was confined to his bed, 
when he came under the medical care of Dr. Larison. He gave 
him quinine and iron, and for the evening the following prescrip- 
tion: 

Sulph. Morph. gr. x 

Op. pulv. gr. XX, 
to be divided into ten powders, one every hour until relief was ob- 
tained. He took Jive of the powders before the pain was relieved, 
and without the production of any of the constitutional effects of 
80 large an administration of opium. The next day he took tUt 
25 



194 MEDICAL SOCIETY OP NEW JERSEY. 

same amount of opium, the system lowing no symptoms of an ex- 
cess of the remedy. The Doctor now directed half an oz. of gin 
to be taken with the powders, which was attended with some re- 
lief Tenderness was now discovered upon pressure over the fifth 
lumbar vertebra. Counter-irritation was employed, and the other 
treatment continued. The patient slowly improved in strength, 
but the pain continued for a time, when it changed its course. 
Commencing in the first named locality, it passed over to the left 
hip and down the left thigh. The Doctor now administered lod. 
Potass, with the quinine and iron, but was soon obliged to desist 
on account of ptyaJism. He now began to ride out, but the pain 
came on regularly and invariably at 9 o'clock in the evening, never 
attacking him, except once or twice, at any other hour. He now 
used the anti-spasmodics in all their variety, and large doses of 
quinine, with no advantage. About three months after the Doctor 
first saw him, the severity of the pain was so great, that it was 
feared that the paroxysms would prove &tal. 

Forty grains of morphia were now divided into thirteen equal 
parts, and one portion, with one oz. of gin, was given every forty 
minutes till relief was obtained. The sufierer took the whole in 
about twenty-four hours, and called upon the Doctor for a renewal 
of the powders. Finding that no ill eflFects followed the adminis- 
tration of the powders, he continued to take the same quantity 
daily for more than a week. He was now put upon strychnine, 
combined with gentian and iron, together with assafoetida and a 
smaller portion of morphine as an anodyne. This proving wholly 
inefficient, resort was again had to the gin and morphine. From 
this time, for the space of two years, his health was variable, suffer- 
ing more or less with the periodic paru, being, for the most of this 
time in the hands of irregular practitioners. 

He again came under the care of the Doctor, sufFering with a 
severe cough, with oflFensive expectoration and oedema of the ex- 
tremities. The cough yielded to remedies, but the oedema in- 
creased with increasing emaciation. The pains were excruciating, 



BBPOBT OP THE STANDING COMMITTEE. 196 

relieved only by gin and morphine — of the former he would take 
one quart, and six grains each of Op. and Morph. in five hours, 
without intoxication or any tendency to sleep. To test the eflFect 
of the gin and opium, when in a normal condition, the Doctor 
gave half a grain of Morph. during the interval of pain, with the 
ordinary eflFect of the drug in about thirty minutes; and in like 
manner three oz. of gin produced obvious signs of intoxication. 
During the latter days of his life he suflFered from dropsy, which 
was temporarily relieved by tapping. He died in August, 1866, 
three years and four months alter Dr. L. was first called to him. 
In the course of the treatment the hypodermic use of anodynes 
was resorted to but did not prove satisfactory. 

At the last meeting of this Society a Committee was appointed, 
Dr. E. M. Hunt, chairnfan, to present, on behalf of the Society, to 
executive and legislative consideration, any matters relating to 
sanitary, hygienic and charitable provision for the citizens of the 
State, which may merit the attention of our State authorities. The 
result of the application of the Committee so appointed, was the 
erection, by the Legislature of 1866, of a State Board of Health, 
having primary reference to the apprehended invasion of Asiatic 
Cholera. To this Board, composed of one member from each Con- 
gressional District, was committed the consideration of such sani- 
tary measures as would protect our towns and cities from this dire 
scourge. Early in the year the Board prepared a communication 
addressed to the Governor of the State, and published generally 
in the newspapers, urging upon the people the necessity of especial 
care in promoting the cleanliness and ventilation of all unhealthy 
localities, showing some of the more appreciable causes of epidemic 
disease, and giving specific information as to the mode of properly 
cleansing and disinfecting unhealthy places. The document they 
issued was a valuable one, and was, it cannot be doubted, attended 
with beneficial results upon the general health. As an outgrowth 
of this measure, an act was prepared and considered by the last 
Legislature " to secure the better preservation of life and health, 



196 HEDICAL 80CIBTY OP NEW JEBSET. 

and to preyent the spread of disease." The details of this act, 
which are very fall, are probably in the possession of the most of 
the members of the Society. We have to regret that it failed in 
its passage. The Committee to whose care the Society has com- 
mitted this important measure should receive the personal aid of 
the medical men of the State, so far as it may be required to secure 
its final adoption. 

In allusion to this important measure, the reporter for Bergen 
county says : " The necessity is imperative that State action should 
be taken to protect the citizens of the Coounonwealth from the 
dangers to the public health from the numerous pest places through- 
out the State. The lowest class of our foreign population is en- 
tirely ignorant of the first principles of hygiene. From infancy 
they hare been educated to filth, and in aeglect of the simplest 
laws of health. They emigrate to this country in the conviction 
that here they can live as they choose without molestation, and 
finee from the prying inquisition oi government officials. Argu- 
ments addressed to their reason are thrown away, and their habits 
of life cannot be changed by appeals to their sense of moral or 
social obligation. The only thing which can reach them, in the 
first generation at least, is the strong arm of the law, enforced by 
a firm will. By the establishment of a Sanitary Commission, or 
Board of Health, invested with authority, and sustained by power 
to turn out, clean out and purify and disinfect, and, if need be, 
quarantine the infected parties and places : and in some instances, 
by tiiis alone, can the public health be effectually protected and the 
public interests efficiently guarded. Our State stands in need of 
some such legislation as this.'' 

The Essex District Medical Society celebrated its semi-centen- 
nial anniversary in the month of April, 1866. Dr. J. Henry Clark, 
who had been previously appointed Historian for the occasion, 
read a valuable paper upon the Semi-Centennial History of the 
Essex District Medical Society. By unanimous vote of the Society, 
Dr. Clark was requested to furnish the Standing Committee with 



BEPORT OF THE STANDING COMMITTEE. 191 

his interesting paper for publication in the Transactions of this So- 
ciety. It is really a history of the medical men who lived in Es- 
sex county from the earliest period. The history stretches back 
into 1600, and gathers up whatever can be found in the ante- 
Revolutionary period. It will be found to contain much interest- 
ing matter in relation to Essex county, and incidentally to the 
counties adjacent. It will teach medical men in other counties the 
importance of doing likewise, for only in this way can a history of 
the medical men of the State be obtained. If the history of every 
County Society could be as carefully written up, a most valuable 
State Medical History could be prepared. The same should be 
done with the epidemic and endemic diseases of each county. The 
experience of Dr. Clark, who has devoted much time and labor to 
this work, teaches the importance of doing quickly whatever we 
do. He says that a few years ago he could have very greatly en- 
riched his paper. As the lingerers of antecedent generations pass 
off the stage, the facts which they know go with them. The lapse 
of every month adds to the diflBiculty of preparing a history of the 
medical men of the past. Let us make the record while we may, 
and leave those who succeed us to do justice in tui?n to our memo- 
ries. Such records bind the profession together, unify their acts 
and endeavors, and furnish constant incentives to the younger men 
to merit a place of honor in the history of the future. 

The Society at its last meeting instructed the District Societies 
to revise their respective by-laws, so as to corcespond with the 
laws of the Society, and report to the Standing Committee. The 
Committee have received notices from Camden, Cumberland, Essex 
and Passaic District Societies, that they have conformed to the 
directions of the Society. No others have reported any action. 

It only remains for the Committee to notice the names of those 
of our brethren of the profession who have ceased from their 
earthly labors. The list is a very long one. Fifteen names are 
on our death record — one taken in early manhood, a few in middle 
life, the majority gathered to their fathers in the ripeness of an 



198 MEDICAL SOCIETY OP NEW JEBSBY. 

honored and revered old age. Drs. William Johnson, of White- 
house, aged 78; Jno. N. WoodhuU, of Princeton, aged 60; Ed- 
ward W. Allen, of Shrewsbury, aged 79 ; J. J. Spencer, of Moores- 
town, aged 76 ; William B. Ewing, of Greenwich, aged 90 ; A. R. 
Newkirk, of Bridgeton, aged 50 ; J. C. Risley, of Woodstown, 
aged 50; Thomas G. Reed, of Woodstown, aged — ; Charles Bar- 
tolette, aged 42, and T. M. Bartolette, aged 40, brothers, Hunter- 
don county ; A. S. Miller, Scotch Plains ; Charles Cook, Jersey 
City ; Henry M. Stone, Perth Amboy, aged 42 ; J. Theodore Cal- 
houn, aged 27 ; D. W. Barclay, Blue Ball. Obituary notices of 
most of the deceased have been received. They are appended to 
this report. 

Stephen Wickes, 
Charles Hasbrouck. 



IN MEMORIAM. 



HENRir m. STONE^ 

Perth Ambot. 
Born March 21st, 1825. Died March 3d, 1866. 



WILLIAM B. JBWING, 

Grbbiiwich. 
Piod April 23d, 1866, Aged 89 years. 



J« THBODORE CALHOUIV, 

U. S^ A, 
Boru September 17th, 1SS8- Died July 19th, 1866. 



THOMAS <aRA]!IIT ME£1»^ 

Boru Noveuiber 12th, 1S37. Died ISeptember 12th, 1866. 



]^atiia:^iei. r. 5icw&im&* 

Boru July 2-id, 1$1T, Died November 10th, 1866. 



J 



AMOS S. MIIiliER, 

Scotch Plains. 
Died December 8th, 1866. 



JAMES C. RISLET, 

WOODSTOWN. 

Born June, 1817. Died November 21st, 1866. 



JOHN N. IVOODHUIili, 

Princeton, 
Born July 25th, 1807. Died January 12th, 1867. 



CHARliES COOK, 

Jersey City. 
Died January 17th, 1867. 



UrilililAM JOHNSON, 

Whitehousb. 
Bom February 18th, 1789. Died January 13th, 1867. 



26 



D. "W. BAIft€I.AT, 

BI.I7K Baij«. 
Died Mait!h, 1866. 



Pied Apiril 7th. 1S67. Aged 76 years. 



l>ievt M^T l^'A. ISiST. A^ed 79 rears. 



BW3t April 5i,l, t52d. I>ted Marvfi lOth. 1866. 




APPENDII TO REPORT OF STAHDIN& COMMITTEE. 



o:BiTtJ.A.iriE:s. 



HENRY M. STONE, M. D. By Dr. C. McKnight Smith. 

Henry Morrill Stone was born at Hartford, Conn., March 21, 
A. D. 1825. After acquiring a thorough knowledge of the ordi- 
nary English branches of education, he entered Kimball Union 
Academy, at Meridan, New Hampshire, and there prosecuted his 
literary studies for four years. Subsequently he attended a course 
of medical lectures at Dartmouth College, and a second one at the 
College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, where the degree 
of M. D. was conferred upon him, in March, 1850. Shortly after 
he settled at Perth Amboy, entered on the practice of his profes- 
sion, and continued therein up to the commencement of his last ill- 
ness, which was protracted through several weeks of great suffer- 
ing. He expired on the 3d of March, 1866, of disease of the mitral 
valve. Of Dr. S. socially, the writer can say but little, as our in- 
tercourse (other. than professional) was extremely limited. Al- 
though for many years residents of the same place, and necessarily 
rivals in practice, nothing occurred to interrupt our relations of 
amity and good feeling. He was a zealous advocate of the honor 
■ of the profession, and jealous of the rights of its members. 



CHARLES BARTOLETTE, M. D. By Jno. Blane, M. D. 
Charles Bartolette, M. D., was bom in Flemington, Hunter- 



204 MEDICAL SOCIETY OP NEW JERSEY. 

don county, New Jersey, on the 3d day of April, 1825. He was 
the son of the Rev. Charles Bartolette, Baptist minister of that 
place. His mother's maiden name was Martha Rush, daughter of 
Peter and Hannah Rush, of Philadelphia. 

He received his preliminary education in the village in which 
he was born, being particularly watched over by his pious father; 
studied his profession with Richard Mershon, M. D., of that place, 
and attended the medical lectures of JeflFerson Medical College in 
Philadelphia, where he graduated in the spring of 1846. 

On his return from Philadelphia, he commenced practice in Mil- 
ford, Hunterdon county. New Jersey, succeeding William Taylor, 
M. D., where he continued to reside until his death, attending to 
a large practice, in which he was very successful. He was a good 
practitioner of both medicine and surgery. 

He had some taste for military aflfairs, was Captain some years 
of the Milford Cadets, and was Brigade Major and Inspector of the 
Hunterdon Brigade of the New Jersey Militia, which office he held 
at the time of his decease, as well as that of Vice President of the 
District Medical Society of Hunterdon county. 

He received a good religious education, but never associated 
himself as a member with any church. 

His health was generally good until within the last four or five 
years of his life, when, owing to untimely exposure, and fatigue of 
a large practice, he was subject to occasional spells of depression 
of spirits, which generally ended in diarrhoea, which, at length, 
took on a chronic form — say about a year before his decease, and 
gave him trouble at intervals, which became shorter and still shorter 
between them, until confirmed, and ended in his death, which took 
place at his residence in Milford, on Saturday, the 10th of March, 
1866, being, at the time, nearly forty-one years of age. 

His funeral was largely attended, and an impressive discourse 
was delivered by the Rev. Mr. Sloat, from Corinthians, 15th chap- • 
ter and 23d verse, and his remains interred in the Milford Union 
Cemetery. 



APPENDIX TO REPORT OP STANDING COMMITTEE. 205 

He married Miss Anna M. Carpenter, daughter of George Car- 
penter, Esq., and Ellen his wife, of Milford, on the 8th of March, 
1851, and left four children, namely — Ellen, Peter, Louisa and 
Charles. Ho was kind, aflFectionate, and conciliatory in his man- 
ners, and, if he had been a good financier, might have been wealthy. 
He was about five feet eight inches in height, well proportioned, 
brown hair, expressive blue eyes, frank, open countenance, good 
conversational powers, pleasing in address, and in every way cal- 
culated to win and retain the confidence and afifection of his pa- 
tients. He was, in fact, a gentleman, in the profession and out of 
it, and had the good will of his professional brethren, as well as of 
all others who knew him. 



THOMAS MILES BARTOLETTE, M. D. Br Jno. Blane, M. D. 

Thomas Miles Bartolette, M. D., brother of the aforemen- 
tioned, and youngest child of his parents, was likewise born in 
Plemington, on the 4th of November, 1827. His preliminary edu- 
cation was the same as that of his brother. His health, in infancy 
and youth, was feeble. His parents often despaired of rearing him 
to maturity. It was not until he was about twenty-five years old 
that he commenced regularly to read medicine with his brother at 
Milford. He attended medical lectures at Jefferson Medical Col- 
lege, where he graduated in 1855. 

He then commenced the practice of medicine at Mount Pleasant, 
Hunterdon county. New Jersey, succeeding Dr. Jacob Winters, 
where he continued till April, 1864, when he moved to Asbury, 
Warren county, New Jersey. 

During his residence in Hunterdon, he was for some years a 
member of the District Medical Society of that county, and held 
the office of Town Superintendent of Public Schools for Alexander 
township several years. 



206 MEDICAL SOCIETY OP NEW JERSEY. 

His health, always rather precarious, was better during the first 
years of his practice. He had a good practice in Hunterdon, and 
among his patients many warm friends ; still he thought best to 
i-emove to Warren county, where he had resided but a short time 
when his health began to fail. First, some symptoms of dyspepsia, 
then a heavy cold developed a disposition to phthisis, which grad- 
ually increased until 8 o'clock P. M. of Saturday, 29th September, 
1866, when he breathed his last, being nearly thirty-nine years 
old. 

His remains were taken to the Union Cemetery at Milford, and 
interred there near his brother, the Rev. Dr. Echard, of Easton, 
preaching from the text: " Not as I will, but as thou wilt." Matt. 
26th chapter, 39th verse. 

He married Miss Amy K. Johnson, daughter of Henry W. John- 
son, Esq., and Sarah his wife, of Milford, on the 2d of April, 1855, 
and leaves one child, Evangeline. 

His religious education was watched over by his worthy and 
pious parents with care. He never joined any church, although 
openly professing, in his conversation, a belief in the precepts of 
the Saviour, and died in the hope of a blessed immortality. 

He was about five feet eleven inches high, bony structure, well 
developed, but not very muscular, which gave him a slender form. 
He had dark brown eyes, black hair, and, for a man of his years, 
a venerable aspect. 

He was very precise and neat in all his business and dress, 
which gave him a very genteel appearance, and would impress any 
one at first sight that he was in the presence of a gentleman. 

As he was the youngest child of his parents, so, likewise, was he 
the last of the surviving brothers of his family. Rush went to sea 
and was never heard of afterwards ; Lemuel died in the city o^ 
New York; John wont in the army to suppress the rebellion, and 
died there; and the last two as here related. All the sisters, four 
in number, still survive. 



\ 



APPENDIX TO REPORT OP STANDING COMMITTEE. 207 

DR. WILLIAM BEDFORD EWING, 

Died at Greenwich, New Jersey, on the 23d of April, 1866, in the 
ninetieth year of his age. 

Dr. EwiNG graduated at the College of Princeton in 1794, and 
was probably the oldest of the alumni of that year. He studied 
medicine at Trenton, New Jersey, under the direction of Dr. 
Nicholas Bellvelle, one of the most distinguished physicians of the 
State, and commenced the practice of his profession in the Island 
of St. Croix, in which place he continued two years. He then set- 
tled in Greenwich, the place of his nativity, where he continued 
actively engaged as a physician for twenty-eight years, when he 
retired from its duties. He was for many years Presiding Judge 
of the County Courts, ten years a member of the State Legislature, 
and a member of the Convention which framed the Constitution of 
New Jersey in 1844. To these duties and honors of the citizen 
were added the crowning glory of being a disciple of Christ, and 
testifying the sincerity of his faith in his serene and peaceful death. 



DR. EDMUND W. ALLEN. By Dr. H. G. Cooke. 

Dr. Edmund W. Allen died at Shrewsbury, New Jersey, May 16, 
1867, in the eightieth year of his age. 

With the early life of Dr. Allen I am not suflSciently acquainted 
to enter into details ; suffice it to say, he was a gentleman of the 
old school, a highly respectable practitioner of medicine, and had 
the entire confidence of the people among whom his services were 
oflFered. He was among those who first established the Monmouth 
County Medical Society, though of late years he has not taken an 
active part in its meetings. He has been a regular practitioner of 
medicine for more than half a century, and continued in the prac- 
tice until within a few months of his decease, and ever cherished a 
high estimate of the rights and privileges of the profession* 



208 MEDICAL SOCIETT OF NEW JERSEY. 

His intercourse with his professional brethren evinced a high 
sense of honor and unselfish generosity. He was a member of the 
Protestant Episcopal Church, and always led an active and con- 
sistent life. For a year or two preceding his death he was troubled 
with nasal catarrh, which in time communicated with the pharynx 
and larynx, causing violent fits of coughing and diflBcult deglutition, 
and latterly he was obliged to abstain from solid food. 

His strength slowly declined, but his intellectual powers suf- 
fered no diminution. 



THOMAS GRANT REED, M. D., 

Died at Bridgeton, New Jersey, September 12, 1866. He was 
born November 12, 1837. 

Thomas G. Reed, M. D., received his academic education in 
Bridgeton, at the West Jersey Academy, during the superintend- 
ence of its first Principal, and is one of several sons of that institu- 
tion whose lives were long, because they »* answered life's great 
end." He will be remembered as a handsome youth, of prepos- 
sessing appearance and attractive manner, with much of that per- 
sonal magnetism which draws intimate friends. His speaking eye 
and cordial hand showed him to be a man of soul. His zeal in his 
profession and his devotion to suflFering humanity consumed him, 
and his name is now added to the long list of youthful martyrs to 
the medical profession. 

Dr. Reed was known as a moral youth, but during his months of 
sickness the germs of those life-giving principles instilled by pious 
parents sprang up into fruits of joy and comfort unto everlasting 
life. He trusted in a risen Saviour. 



NATHANIEL R. NEWKIRK, M. D. 

Dr. Nathaniel Reeve Newkirk, the son of Matthew and Eliz- 



APPENDIX TO REPORT OP STANDING COMMITTEE. 209 

abeth Newkirk, was bom in Pittsgrove, Salem county, New Jer- 
sey, on the 22d day of July, 1817. He entered Lafayette College, 
Pennsylvania, where he graduated in the year 1841.^ Subsequently 
he studied medicine, and graduated Doctor of Medicine in the 
School of the University of Pennsylvania. In the spring of 1844 
he commenced the practice of medicine in Pittsgrove, his native 
place, where, notwithstanding his being surrounded by older and 
longer established competitors, he became popular, and succeeded 
in obtaining a good share of professional business. In the summer 
of 1851, he removed to Greenwich, Cumberland county, New Jer- 
sey, and practiced medicine in that place, with steadily increasing 
popularity, until a gradual but persistent attack of pulmonary dis- 
ease compelled him to abridge his labors, and finally to remove to 
Bridgeton, New Jersey, in the hope that, in that place, he might 
obtain a practice suflScicntly remunerative, with less labor and ex- 
posure. His increasing debility and emaciation, however, made it 
painfully evident that consumption was doing its work upon his 
frame, and must soon prove fatal, when, on the 1st day of Novem- 
ber, 1866, he had an attack of dysentery, which, on the 10th day 
of the same month, terminated his useful life. 

His early religious training bore its appropriate fruit in his 
strictly honorable, upright and useful life ; in the religion which 
enabled him to triumph over debility, pain, and the fear of death, 
and in the evidence fomished to those who were with him during 
the closing hours of his life, that he has entered into the "rest that 
remaineth for the people of God." 



JAMES 0. RISLET, M. D, 

Dr. Risley was the son of James Risley, Judge of Common 
Pleas, and was born at Woodstown, Salem county. New Jersey, in 
June, 1817. In 1834 he began the study of medicine in the office 
27 



210 MEDICAL SOCIETY OP NEW JERSEY. 

of J. Hunt, M. D., at the age of twenty-one years. In June, 1838, 
he was licensed by the Board of Censors of the Medical Society of 
New Jersey for the Western District. He immediately began the 
practice of medicine at Port Elizabeth, where he remained until 
1842. 

While there he was united in matrimony to Miss Caroline Comp- 
ton of that place. At the request of his father, he returned to his 
native town to practice, and remained until 1844. During this 
year he completed a very full college course, and graduated in 
medicine and surgery at JeflFerson Medical College, Philadelphia. 
His next scene of labor was in Camden county, where he sustained 
a very extensive practice until 1849, when he went to Columbia, 
Pennsylvania. 

In 1856 he settled in Muscatine, Iowa, and remained till 1861. 
Keturning then to Pennsylvania, he opened his oflSce in New Brigh- 
ton. After a residence there of about three years, he returned, in 
1864, to Woodstown. Though much broken in health, he pursued 
the practice of his profession until the last summer, when his 
increasing feebleness compelled him to desist. After lingering 
for several weeks in extreme suffering, heroically endured, he died 
peacefully, November 21, 1866. 

Dr. Risley was of full size and symmetrical build. He had a 
clear, sharp eye, a pleasing countenance, and a bearing dignified 
and commanding, yet easy and natural. He was justly celebrated 
for his brilliant colloquial powers. When listening to his almost 
unbroken flow of language and of thought, the hours would pass 
unnoticed away. 

In his profession he had few superiors, either as physician or sur- 
geon. Wherever he practiced he immediately won the confidence 
of the people, and became the leading physician. His mind was 
one of unusual power. His memory was remarkable for its read- 
iness. He remembered everything ; he was a cyclopaedia of med- 
ical knowledge. To the last he was an earnest and systematic 
student. It was his intention to become an author. Preparatory 



APPENDIX TO BBPORT OP STANDING COMMITTEE. 211 

to that step, he had written a number of valuable lectures, which 
are now owned by Dr. Warrington, of Salem, New Jersey. 

Not until a few months before his last sickness did he pay any 
attention to spiritual things. After suflfering untold mental an- 
guish for months, he professed faith in Christ a few weeks before 
his death. His broken-hearted but pious widow lives in hope that 
she shall see him again on the radiant mom of eternal day. 



JOHN NBILSON WOODHULL, M. D. 

For four generations the paternal ancestors of John Neilson 
WooDHULL, M. D., were ministers of the gospel. 

His grandfather was John WoodhuU, D. D. ; his grandmother a 
step-daughter of the Rev. Gilbert Tenant. 

His father was the Rev. George SpafiFord WoodhuU, pastor of 
the Presbyterian Church at Cranberry, and subsequently of the 
church at Princeton. His mother was Gertrude Neilpon, a daugh- 
ter of Col. John Neilson, an oflScer of distinction in the war of the 
Revolution. 

Dr. John N. WoodhuU was bom in Cranberry, July 25th, 1807. 
He graduated at the CoUege of New Jersey in 1828. He studied 
medicine in Princeton with Dr. Samuel Howell, and graduated in 
medicine at the University of Pennsylvania in 1832. He entered 
on practice as a physician at Middletown Point, whither his parents 
had gone to reside. 

Soon after the death of his father, flattering proposals were made 
to him to settle in Mobile, Alabama, which he declined. As the 
health of his old preceptor, Dr. Howell, had now failed, he deter- 
mined to enter on practice in Princeton. This was in 1835. In 
Princeton or its immediate vicinity he resided and practiced until 
his death. Prior to 1843 his practice extended many miles in all 
directions around Princeton. It required four or five horses, and 
he was riding night and day. Subsequent to the date just men- 



212 MEDICAL BOCIEIT OF NEW JEBSET. 

tioned (1843) his practice was mainly confined to patients who vis- 
ited him at his ofiSce, some of whom came from distant towns and 
counties, and even from other States. 

His patients felt for him the strongest regard, and he manifested 
in them something more than a mere professional interest. His 
kindness to the poor was proverbial. His attachments were strong, 
and his aversions perhaps equally strong. His physical constitu- 
tion must have possessed great vigor and recuperative energy. 
Among his intellectual traits, his memory, probably, was the most 
remarkable. 

In his devotion to his parents he was most exemplary. He was 
not a communicant in the Christian Church, but professed to his 
pastor to rest all his hopes of salvation on the merits of Jesus 
Christ. 

He accumulated a considerable estate from his practice, of which 
he bequeathed to the College of New Jersey property amounting 
in value to some $20,000. v 

After a painful illness of six months, he died on Saturday, Janu- 
ary 12, 1867, at 2 o'clock P. M. 



CHARLES COOK, M. D., 

Was born near Bordentown, Burlington county, New Jersey. He 
was brought up on the farm of bis grandfEither, under the super- 
vision of his uncle, Dr. Joseph Cook, and a maiden aunt After 
receiving his education at a boarding-school, kept by Mr. Arnold, 
at the age of seventeen he entered the counting-house of Joseph S. 
Levering, of Philadelphia, where he remained till he commenced 
the study of medicinei in the autumn of 1843. His medical pre- 
ceptors were, Dr. Joseph Cook, of Bordentown, where he spent the 
summer months, and Dr. Leidey, of Philadelphia. 

After attending three courses of lectures, he received his diplo- 
ma firom the University of Pennsylvania, in Apiil, 1845. 



APPENDIX TO BEPORT OP STANDING COMMITTEE. 213 

After practicing one year in Bordentown, in conjunction with 
his uncle, he removed to Jersey City in October, 1846. He was, 
with the exception of Dr. Josiah Gautier, the only young physician 
in the place. 

October 6, 1847, he married the daughter of Jacob Ballenger, of 
Philadelphia. He was the father of four daughters — Florence, 
Gertrude, Sarah and Alice. 

He passed the State examination of the Medical Society of New 
Jersey at Pennington, and received his diploma August 14, 1851. 

Dr. Cook's name was associated with a few others in establish- 
ing the Hudson County Medical Society. 

He was appointed City Physician three times, passed through 
the ship fever, the epidemic dysentery of 1848, the cholera of 1849 
and 1858. 

On the 8th of June, 1864, he went to the White House, as one 
of the Volunteer Surgeons. In 1865 he was appointed U. S. Sur- 
geon, Examiner of Pensions. In 1866 he was appointed the gra- 
tuitous Physician of the " Children's Home." 

As a politician he was a Republican, and was always an active 
worker in the great catise of emandpationj engendered by his 
Quaker proclivities. 

He practiced medicine twenty-one years in Jersey City. He 
always spoke with gratitude of Dr. Corneilson, for his advance- 
ment in his early professional life. 

He died January 17, 1867, and was interred June 7th, in that 
beautiful City of the Dead, South Laurel Hill, Philadelphia, with 
his in&nt daughter. 



WILLIAM JOHNSON, M. D. By Jno. Blane, M. D. 

Dr. William Johnson was bom at Princeton, New Jersey, on 
the 18th of February, 1789. His father, Thomas P. Johnson, was 
u lawyer of distinguished ability, and was one among five in 



214 MEDICAL SOCIETY OF NEW JEBSET. 

this State upon whom was conferred the honorary degree of Ser- 
geant-at-Law. His portrait adorns the court-room at Flemington, 
Hunterdon county, and hangs immediately over the judge's bench. 
His mother's name was Miss Mary Stockton, a branch of the dis- 
tinguished Stockton family, many of the members of which have 
held important ofiSces in State and National trusts. 

At the early age of twelve years death deprived him of the sym- 
pathy and guidance of his mother, and he was left to pursue the 
studies of his early days guided by the wisdom of his distinguished 
father. 

Selecting for his profession the practice of medicine, he devoted 
himself to the study of its theory and practice with Dr. John Van 
Cleve, of Princeton, New Jersey, as his preceptor. 

He moved to Whitehouse in July, 1811. He soon got into a 
wide and laborious practice, to which he devoted himself with sin- 
gular fidelity and zeal. He loved the study of medicine and the 
practice of it was with him almost a passion. 

With a vigorous and active mind, he was a most laborious stu- 
dent, and constantly brought to his practice the result of patient 
research and study ; added to this, he wrote with much clearness, 
elegance and force, and for about eight years was a regular con- 
tributor to the pages of the " New Jersey Medical Reporter," pub- 
lished at Burlington. In later years, when this journal was re- 
moved to Philadelphia, and assumed the name of the " Medical and 
Surgical Reporter," his articles were eagerly sought for and ftir- 
nished until the infirmity of blindness compelled him to abandon 
both his pen and his practice. The articles he contributed to the 
« Journal of Medicine and Surgery," were extensively copied by 
foreign journals, and were highly appreciated. They were the re- 
sults of his own experience, told with logical distinctness, and with 
a single eye towards elevating to a higher standard that science 
that has, in intelligent practice, so blessed the human race. As 
might be expected, he was skillful, and enjoyed a wide reputation. 

Many also sought his presence, that they might sit at his feet as 



APPENDIX TO BEPORT OP STANDING COMMITTEE. 215 

pupils of Galen. Among those who studied medicine under his 
guidance, were the late Dr. John Price, the late Dr. Peter Haas, 
Dr. John Honeyman, of New Germantown, Dr. Henry Field, of 
Clinton, the late Dr. John Gaddis, of Fairview, Illinois, Dr. An- 
drew Otterson, of Brooklyn, Dr. Jacob Field, of Salterville, New 
Jersey, and his own sons, Drs. Thomas and John V. C. Johnson. 

He was an early advocate for associating tlie members of the 
profession for mutual improvement, and with Drs. Nicholas Bel- 
ville, of Trenton, Henry B. Poole, of Lebanon, and John Bowne, 
of Amwell, were associated in a commission from the Medical So- 
ciety of New Jersey, and formed the District Medical Society of 
Hunterdon county, on the 12th day of June, 1821, at Flemington, 
at which time he was chosen Vice President of the Society, and 
on the 4th of May, 1824, President of said Society, which ofiSce he 
repeatedly held up to the years 1857 and 1858. 

At the meeting of the Medical Society of New Jersey, held at 
New Brunswick, May 13, 1823, he was elected Third Vice Presi- 
dent of the State Society, succeeding in that office Henry B. Poole. 
They were both of Hunterdon. The published minutes of the Sot 
ciety of that time, which was only in newspapers, told that fact. 

In 1830, the Legislature having amended the charter of the Med- 
ical Society of New Jersey, the Society published it, together with 
a list of all the former officers, in a pamphlet issued from " Eutgers 
Press, by Terhune & Letson, New Brunswick, New Jersey, 1830,'* 
in which the name of Dr. William Johnson is published, as having 
been elected Third Vice President in 1823. This publication was 
made by an order of the Society which was passed May 11, 1830, 
and was revised and reprinted by an order of the Society passed 
November 13, 1838, in which reprint the name of Jacob Johnson 
appears, instead of William Johnson, whose name had, for the last 
fifteen years, been published as the said officer. The error took 
place at the time of the revision, as a reference to the original 
records of the Society will prove, and the error is still continued 
in all subsequent lists of the officers of that Society. 



216 MEDICAL SOCIETY OP NEW JERSEY. 

When the Medical Society of New Jersey appointed the Board 
of Censors in the Districts, he was one of the Censors for that Dis- 
trict in the yeara 1348, '51, '52, '54, '56, '57, '58, '59, '61, '65. 

He was a very attentive member of the District Society as long 
as his health and sight would admit of his traveling. 

In his intercourse with his patients he was kind and affectionate, 
and soothing where he could not heal. 

In his intercourse with his fellow practitioners he needed no 
written code of ethics to keep him in the line of his duty. With 
him it was natural to be courteous and honorable with every one. 

He was for more than fifty years a member — and most of the 
time a ruling elder — in the Reformed Protestant Dutch Church of 
Rockaway, and died, triumphing through the merits of the Saviour, 
at his residence at Whitehouse, New Jersey, on Sabbath morning, 
January 13, 1867, being in the seventy-eighth year of his age. He 
retained full control of his mental faculties until but a few moments 
before his death. 

His funeral took place on the 17th, when an impressive andelo- 
fluent discourse was delivered by the pastor. Rev. Mr. Van Slycke, 
from Joshua, 1st chapter, 2d verse, " Moses my servant is dead." 
His remains were interred in the cemetery attached to that church, 
there to remain until called forth at the resurrection of the just. 

" If the memory of the just is blessed, how fragrant must be the 
memories that cluster about this faithful servant of God, who has 
been gathered to his fathers, as a shock of corn fully ripe. No man 
loved the ordinances of God's house and the prayer meeting more 
than he, nor was any ever more punctual. He realized the power 
of prayer and its necessity, and with rare gifts of utterance in this 
exercise, he delighted to lead the devotions of the people of God, 
which he did with singular ability and fervor. 

" Amid the distracting scenes through which his church has been 
called to pass, he never forsook his post, but stood, like a faithful 
servant, encouraging the despondent, counseling the erring, and 
praying with the hopeful few. He lived long enough to see the 



APPENDIX TO REPORT OP STANDING COMMITTEE. 217 

consummation of his wishes and the answers to his prayers. He 
lived to see his church a revived and united church, stronger in 
spiritual and temporal things than ever before, and to say with the 
aged Simeon, * Lord, now lettest thou thy servant depart in peace, 
according to thy word, for mine eyes have seen thy salvation.' " 



A fiill notice of Dr. J. Theodore Calhoun will be found in Dr. 
Clark's historical paper. 



28 



Reports of District Societies. 



BERGEN COUNTY. 

Stephen Wickes, M. D., Chairman of Standing Committee: 

In the commencement of the year it was very generally antici- 
pated that Bergen county would soon suffer from an invasion of 
cholera. Bergen county, from its proximity to the commercial 
metropolis, and almost constant communication with that city, must 
always, necessarily, be more exposed to this and other imported 
diseases, than some other portions of the State ; and in point of 
fact, in previous epidemics of cholera, some portions of the county 
Buffered severely, particularly in the epidemics of 1832 and 1849. 
The public mind, in the early part of the year, was, in consequence, 
very generally impressed with a vague dread of impending pesti- 
lence, a condition which, by its depressing influence upon the nat- 
ural powers of vital resistance, was well calculated to increase the 
natural susceptibility to the action of morbific agents, and thus to 
promote the occurrence and spread of diseases. 

Notwithstanding this, however, there was no material, if any, 
increase of sickness from the usual diseases of the climate, while, 
at the same time, the county was almost entirely exempt from epi- 
demic diseases, and diseases of contagious origin. 

Most of our physicians have remarked that pleuritis, pneumonia, 
&c., either alone or in combination, occurred more frequently than 
usual in the winter and spring months. This is in accordance 
with my own observation. In my own practice, several cases of 
pneumonia occurred even as late as the hot months of summer. 



fiEl»OBTS Op DISTRiCl? SOCIETIES. 2l9 

These diseases, however, presented nothing unusual in their course 
or character, or indications of treatment, showing, I think, an en- 
tire absence of any unusual atmospheric condition or epidemic ?h- 
fluence, sufficient to modify the course of prevailing diseases, or to 
impress upon them any peculiar characteristics. 

The same remark will apply, with slight qualification, to the dis- 
eases of the last summer and autumn. Dysentery, which gener- 
ally prevails here to a greater or less extent from July to October, 
and which, in some years past, has shown itself as a violent and 
fatal epidemic, occurred less frequently than usual, while cholera 
infantum, cholera morbus, and diarrhoeas, were perhaps more than 
usually prevalent. 

This increased prevalence of the latter diseases, however, was, I 

think, more apparent than real, owing to the great increase of our 

temporary summer population. Our recently increased facilities 

of rapid and frequent communication with the city by railroad and 

telegraph, have had the effect of bringing into the county a large 

1 number of families for summer residence. These families generally 

I had a large number of young children, and in my own practice, I 

i am confident that most of my cases of cholera infantum, and many 

of diarrhoea, were among these. 

The only peculiarity that I noticed in the bowel complaints of 
the last summer, was an unusually large proportion of cases of 
sercms diarrhoea — that is, diarrhoea in which the dejections were 
frequent, copious, liquid, of a pale bluish color, and flaky, resem- 
bling very much a weak soap-suds made with "hard" water. In 
a very few cases the matters passed by vomiting and purging, had 
the genuine ** rice-water" appearance of true cholera. These cases 
of liquid diarrhoea tended rapidly to great prostration, marked by 
husky or partially suppressed voice, feeble pulse, cool and dusky 
skin, &c. Sometimes cramps of the extremities were severe, and 
in most cases there was greatly diminished urinary secretion. In 
one of my patients, the bladder was emptied two hours before the 



220 MEDICAL SOCIBTT OF NEW JERSEY. 

attack) and no urine was passed until twenty hours afterwards, 
and then only about half a gill, dark, turbid and offensive. 
• These cases, although very alarming from their suddenness and 
severity, generally yielded kindly to treatment. The following was 
with me a favorite prescription: Ijt — Pulv. Camphor, Pul v. Plumbi 
Acetatis, aa gr. j. Pulv. Opii, Hydrag. Sub. Mur. aa gr.ss., made 
into a pill, with mucilage, and given every half hour, or every one, 
two, or three houi*s, as circumstances may require. With this 
treatment, together with mustard, hot bottles, &c., externally, and 
ice, iced water, and iced brandy and water internally, the patient 
generally recovered promptly, without the typhoid reaction, or 
symptoms of uraemic poisoning that sometimes follow cholera. The 
disease did not, in any instance spread, either in the family or 
neighborhood. 

It is proper, perhaps, to say that isolated cases of this choleroid 
form of bowel complaint, have occurred every summer since the 
cholera epidemic of 1849. But it seemed to me, that the unusually 
frequent occurrence of cases of this character last summer, indi- 
cated an "epidemic constitution of the season," highly favorable 
to the development of cholera, and that required only the intro- 
duction of the specific poison of the disease to develop the pesti- 
lence in its genuine form. 

Dr. De Mund, physician to our County Almshouse, reports two 
cases of cholera in that institution ; one in an adult, the other in a 
child about four years old. Dr. D. does not give a history of the 
cases, but simply writes that they were " cases of genuine cholera." 
Both proved fatal in about sixteen hours. These are the only 
cases that have been reported to me as genuine cholera. 

But few cases of malarious fevers occurred in the county the 
past year. Even in those localities in which intermittents, &c., 
are most apt to prevail, they were very seldom met with. 

The same is true of typhoid fever. The only cases that have 
been reported to me occurred in the practice of Dr. Wells, who is 
located near the southeastern boundary of the county. The cases 



REPORTS OP DISTRICT SOCIETIES. 221 

themselves were in Hudson county, on the Palisades — a locality 
in which the disease would scarcely be expected to occur. Dr. 
W. states that these cases, some half a dozen or so, ail occurred in 
three or four families living near each other. The wells from 
-which these families are supplied with water are sunk only ten or 
twelve feet beneath the surface, among the rocks, and of course are 
supplied only with surface water. Besides, the waste water, &c., 
from the houses, are led off by a surface drain, which was exceed- 
ingly filthy and offensive, spreading out in one place into a nasty 
duck pond. The Doctor attributes the disease to these causes. 

A few cases of diphtheria occurred in various parts of the coun- 
ty, but in only one instance did the disease assume anything like 
an endemic character. In this exceptional instance the disease 
made its appearance among the pupils of a private school, in a 
damp locality, and spread through the school and among the chil- 
ren of the neighborhood with whom the children were accustomed 
to play. Some fifteen children were attacked, of whom three died. 

In my reports for 1864 and 1865, I mentioned the fact that a 

few cases of variola had occurred in the county; that the contagion 

in every instance could be traced to a foreign source ; and that, in 

consequence of the very general practice of vaccination, the disease 

• soon died out for lack of subjects liable to its attacks. 

I regret to be obliged to state that recently this loathsome dis- 
ease again made its appearance in one portion of the county, and 
that, too, under circumstances that challenge the prompt attention 
of the Society and of the legislative authorities of the State. 

Near this village, on the Hackensack River, are two or three 
brickyards, employing a number of laborers, mostly Grermans. Be- 
low the village, but in immediate connection with it, is a settle- 
ment of about fifty families, most of whom are, apparently, of the 
lowest class of German laborers, ignorant, superstitious and dirty. 
The location is low and damp ; the residences of these people are 
small, and built without reference to comfort or to hygienic con- 
ditions. On inquiry I have also learned that most of these fami- 



222 MEDICAL SOCIBTr OB* ifEW JERSfiY. 

lies had never had their children vaccinated. Whether this was 
the result of ignorance, or penuriousness, or neglect, I cannot say. 
In the latter part of the winter, a German laborer moved his fam- 
ily from the city into this neighborhood, and began to work in one 
of the brickyards. In a few days he was taken sick with what 
proved to be confluent small-pox, and soon died. From this case 
the disease spread through the family and into the neighbor- 
hood above described. I am informed by the physicians in at- 
tendance, that twenty-seven cases of the disease occurred, several 
of which proved fatal. I visited one of these cases in consultation. 
It was a case of confluent small-pox. I found the patient in a room 
about twelve feet square. It was the only room on the first floor, 
and served the purposes of kitchen, dining-room, bed-room, and 
everything. He was lying on the bed with his pants on, and the 
bed-clothes and the patient's apparel were literally stifiF with ac- 
cumulated dirt. The filth of months' collection, apparently, lay 
thick upon the floor. The door and windows were tightly closed, 
and every possible chance for ventilation carefully shut up. The 
extraordinary combination of intolerable stenches that saluted the 
nostrils on entering the room, was infinitely beyond anything the 
mind can conceive. And such, 1 am informed, is the condition oi 
many of the residences of this peculiar people in this particular 
locality. 

I mention these facts more particularly for the purpose of calling 
attention to the great importance, and, in view of the probable oc- 
currence of cholera during the coming summer, the imperative ne- 
cessity of some action on the part of the public authorities to pro- 
tect the citizens of the commonwealth from the dangers to the 
pubKc health resulting from this and similar pest-places through- 
out the State. 

The lowest class of our foreign population is entirely ignorant 
of the first principles of hygiene. From infancy they have been 
educated to filth and in neglect of the simplest laws of health. 
They emigrate to this country in the conviction that here they can 



REPORTS OP DISTRICT SOCIETIES. 223 

live as they choose without molestation, and free from the prying 
I inquisition of government oflScials. Arguments addressed to their 

! reason are thrown away, and their habits of life cannot be changed 

j t>y appeals to their sense of moral or social obligation. In short, 

i it seems to me that the only thing that can reach or influence them, 

I in the first generation at least, is the strong arm of the law en- 

I forced by a firm will. By the establishment of a Sanitary Com- 

mission or Board of Health, invested with authority and backed 
np by power, to turn out, clean out, purify and disinfect, and, if 
need be, quarantine the infected parties and places, and in some 
instances by this alone, can the public health be effectually pro- 
tected and the public interests efficiently guarded. Our State, it 
seems to me, is sadly in want of some such legislation as this. 

No unusual cases have been reported to me, nor any violations 
of our excellent code of ethics. 

Chas. Hasbrouck. 
Hackensack, N. J., May 1, 1867. 



BURLINGTON COUNTY. 
Chairman of the Standing Committee, Sfc. : 

Judging from the numerous and able reports furnished by the 
members of this Society for the Centennial Meeting, I entertained 
no doubt that the spirit of communication was so completely aroused 
that a verbal request at our district meeting in January last, would 
have been sufficient to elicit a corresponding response. 

It was a mistake — only one paper has been received, and that 
merely a meteorological report from Dr. Thornton, very accurate- 
ly kept, but unfortunately mislaid, and not to be used at the pres- 
ent time. It would seem from verbal information that the past 
year has ofiered so little novelty in the characteristics of the dis- 
eases of the climate, that physicians find difficulty in seizing on an 
interesting subject for communication. 



224 MEDICAL SOCIETY OF NEW JERSEY. 

Perhaps that which most prominently claimed both professional 
and public attention during the last year, was the anticipated in- 
vasion of Asiatic Cholera. 

To a very considerable extent, when the population was suflS- 
ciently dense to wairant the effort, hygienic measures were adopted, 
cautionary advice given, and medicines suggested for domestic use 
in the incipient stages of the disease. 

With one exception, there does not appear to have been any re- 
markable tendency to that specific form of Cholera. In the Bur- 
lington County Poorhouse, where many broken-down constitutions, 
the idiotic and imbecile are congregated, with others to the num- 
ber of two hundred, and where in 1854 the cholera raged with 
much fatality, we had not one fatal case during the past season. 
Thorough cleanliness was observed, a supervision enforced over 
careless indulgence in unripe fruit, and indigestible food generally, 
and a liberal supply of the following mixture kept on hand with 
instruction to use freely in all cases of diarrhoea as soon as 
reported. Tr. Opium, Tr. Camp, and Capsicum in equal quanti- 
ties, to be given in oz. doses pro re rata. The compound was very 
efficacious in arresting every case of diarrhoea, of which there were 
the usual number of cases generally occurring at that season of the 
year. 

One remarkable exception to the above exemption from virulence 
of character, happened in the city of Burlington in the month ol 
August. 

The circumstances were such as to afford strong presumptive 
evidence of very circumscribed origin, yet do not entirely sus- 
tain it. 

There were seventeen cases, fourteen of which proved fatal in 
periods of 24 to 60 hours duration. The earliest cases were loca- 
ted in diflFerent and distant parts of the city. About one-half had 
their origin in two families who used the water from a well of un- 
common foulness. These cases were exceedingly malignant, the 
patients dying in a few hours, apparently without premonitory 



REPORTS OP DISTRICT SOCIETIES. 225 

symptoms. After the wells had been thoroughly cleansed and the 
water no longer used, no more cases occurred. All who drank 
from that well were not affected, neither had all the subjects of 
cholera visited that locality. It seemed to have had a more widely 
spread origin, but certainly was intensified by the putridity of that 
well. Burlington lies on the line of the railroad communicating be- 
tween New York and Philadelphia, in both of which cities there 
was more or less cholera at that time. Bordentown and other 
places lie on the same line where there were no such cases. 

As I have only the health of my own immediate district to dwell 
upon, my report must necessarily be very brief. 

No epidemics worthy of note have occurred during the year. 
Pertussis is now prevailing, but generally uncomplicated, and man- 
aged mostly in a domestic way by some one or other of many 
remedies now in use. Intermittent fever, although a hackneyed 
subject, in its endless protean phases, must ever be one of interest 
to the physician. Concealed and latent, its period of incubation 
appears to be as variable as its forms are diversified. 

The intermittent type is now established here. I have not seen 
a case of typhoid or continued fever for nearly three years, but 
insidiously and often obscurely, the intermittent type gives charac- 
ter to almost all ailments, and renders them amenable to quinine 
to an extent unknown here for the past thirty years. 

Rheumatism, About fifteen years ago, Dr. Joseph Parrish, 
then of Burlington, read before the Society a paper, in which he 
said, " I expect to cure acute rheumatism as certainly by quinine, 
as intermittent fever." 

I then tried it without any such success. Now it is perhaps the 
best remedy at my command. Six cases of chills and fever have 
occurred in the puerperal state since the first of January. Pour of 
them had not had the fever and ague. Two had suffered from it 
last fall. 

In the first place the chill occurred on the second day after par- 
turition, assumed the tertian type, (unusual here). This patient 
29 



KSDICAL B0CIET7 OF NEW JEBSE7. 

had a few chills last snmmer ; not the least intimation of return 
until the fifteenth of January. 

Four of the other cases were developed for the first time after 
confinement. I presume in the latter cases the virus had lain la- 
tent since last summer or fall. At first these cases were alarming, 
but their character now being understood and their amenability 
to quinine established, they have ceased to be so. 

Hernia. I mention this case of strangulated hernia for the 
purpose of calling the attention of the country physicians to the 
importance of more frequent post-mortem examinations for the cor- 
rection of diagnosis, and justification, or not, of the practice pursued. 
JBL. S. had complained at times of pain in the right umbilical region 
for more than two years, occasionally so severe as to require medi- 
cal aid. An epispastic, with an aperient or two, generally relieved 
so much that a mere sensation of uneasiness, scarcely sufficient to 
claim attention, only remained during the interval between the 
violent paroxysms. Bowels rather inclined to torpidity. One year 
from the beginning of this derangement of health, a direct inguinal 
hernia was detected, generally giving a feeling of uneasiness rather 
than pain, excepting when it became enlarged and required reduc- 
tion, which could be only partially effected, but enough to give 
reliefl 

I supposed it to be a permanent omental hernia, with occasional 
intestinal reducible complication. An ordinary truss could not 
be worn. A concave pad, surrounding the tumor, and preventing 
intestinal protrusion, did better when kept to its place, but that 
was difficult, and at length an irreducible strangulation occurred, for 
which an operation was performed. 

Instead of omentum, the permanent tumor was composed of a 
a portion of the caocum and appendix strongly adherent to the 
sack, with at this time an additional portion of intestine forced 
down and strangulated. By patience and perseverence the adhe- 
sions were broken up, and the whole mass, although quite dark and 
tinged, returned, Wound dressed, patient kept perfectly quiet, 



hbports op district socikmbs. 227 

and bowels easily moved by castor oil, appeared to be doii^ re- 
markably well until the eighth day, when she was suddenly seized 
by violent pain in the side and vomited stercoracious matter. 
Died on the morning of the tenth day. 

Posi'Mortem. — Cut well closed and united, caecum and appendix 
entirely free, having nearly recovered their natural color and ten- 
uity, but a portion of the ileum three inches in length was attached 
to the side five inches above the inguinal wound and seven feet 
from the caecum by intestinal measurement. The adhesion was en- 
tirely gangrenous, involving about two-thirds of the circumference 
of the intestinal canal through the length of the attached portion. 
Why that spot should have run into gangrene, whilst the dam- 
aged caecum was so rapidly resuming its healthy condition, I cannot 
teU. 

Viewed as a necessary surgical operation, it was entirely suc- 
cessful, and would justify the repetition under similar apparent 
circumstances. Whilst the unfortunate result was owing to com- 
plication which we had no means of appreciating to their full 
extent. 

It becomes my duty to announce the death of the venerable Dr. 
J. J. Spencer, of Moorestown, who died on the 7th of April, 1867, 
aged about 76. 

In the death of Dr. Spencer the medical profession has lost a 
member, highly esteemed for his professional attainments, urbanity 
and courteous deportment to his fellows, while society laments the 
departure of the gentleman, philanthropist and Christian. 

J. P. COLiM AN. 

Pbmbbrton, May 20, 1867. 



CAMDEN COUNTY. 

Chairman of the Standing Committee, ^c. : 
The change in the time of the Annual Meeting of our State Med- 



228 MEDICAL SOCIETY OP mSW JERSEY. 

ical Society from January to May, makes it still proper that wc 
should commence our annual summary, in January. 1866. The 
commencement of the year was remarkable for the intense severity 
of the weather, rarely equaled, and never, we believe, exceeded 
in this vicinity. The thermometer January 8th, 1866, fell to 12 
degrees below zero, and some distance in the country it was as low 
as 16deg. in a few exposed localities, but in a few days it rose to 40 
deg. above. The great variation in temperature caused an unusual 
amount of disease in the respiratory organs. Pneumonia, Bron- 
chitis and Pleurisy were of frequent occurrence. The Pneumonia 
was of a very severe form, proving fatal in many elderly persons, 
and in those whose constitutions had been impaired by intemper- 
ance, exposure, or in general whatever had a tendency to impair 
the vital powers. Pneumonia, as met with in this county, was for 
the most part of an asthenic type, rendering the use of the lancet 
unnecessary or inadmissable, but manifest advantage was often de- 
rived from cups and blisters, and in many cases dry cups were very 
useful, where even local depletion was of doubtful value. In this 
connection we may remark, that although our present form of in- 
flammatory diseases- do not admit of the same depletory treatment 
they once required, we do not think it advisable or necessary that 
stimulants are required, but that the practitioner should rather 
adopt a supporting treatment by means of diet, and suitable nour- 
ishment, so as to keep the system up while treating the disease by 
proper medicines. We are convinced that in some cases harm has 
been done by the too early and too frequent use of alcoholic stim- 
ulants, which have the tendency to hurry the blood through the 
inflamed lung, as well as to produce cerebral disturbance at a time 
when the proper decarbonisation of the blood is already difficult, 
owing to the inflammation existing in the lung tissue. With those 
views we have thought that it was more prudent to reserve the use 
of stimulants to the latter stage of the disease, when they can be 
given with more safety. Catarrh and croup were met with in 
many parts of the county, especially the latter, which often termi- 



REPOBiB OF DISTEICT SOCIElTIfiS. 229 

nated in the formation of the false membrane, which proves fatal 
in the vast majority of cases. Our own observation rather inclines 
us to believe that croup is more fatal than it was a few years ago, 
when active depletion, both from the arm and by leeches, was more 
frequently resorted to, even in young children. Scarlatina, which 
often prevails in an epidemic form in winter and spring, was rarely 
met with in the city of Camden, the cases being for the most part 
sporadic and of the simple form ; yet in one part of the county, in 
Wateribrd Township, about sixteen miles from Camden, Dr. J. W. 
Snowden reports that scarlatina maligna has prevailed for sev- 
eral months, in many cases attacking adults as well as children, 
proving fatal in quite a number of cases. 

Small Pox, which a few years ago prevailed in some places 
almost as an epidemic, has almost entirely disappeared, the few 
cases that have been seen having been contracted at a distance, 
and not spreading out of the immediate family, — differing in this 
respect from what we see in some years, when a single case intro- 
duced in a neighborhood serves to spread the disease over a large 
space, illustrating the active power of an epidemic condition of the 
atmosphere to diffuse the contagion over large districts. As sum- 
mer approached, the almost universal expectation that we should 
be visited by an epidemic of cholera, caused the profession as well 
as the community at large to look to the advent of warm weather 
with anxious solicitude. Situated as our city and county are on 
one of the great highways of travel between the North and South, 
and warned as we were by its appearance among the emigrants ar- 
riving at New York, it gave us no right to expect immunity from 
its attacks, if we neglected those various sanitary and hygienic 
precautions, which ample experience in other places had taught us 
could be made available to prevent its occurrence, as well as to rid 
us of it when it should have made its appearance in our midst. 

A committee of our local medical society were appointed to con- 
fer with the municipal authorities of the city of Camden, who, in 
the most liberal and courteous manner, put the most ample power 



in their hands to plaee &e city in a pit>per sanitary condttioii, 19ie 
Health Committee of the City Gooncil hating ample powei- to 
abate all nniaanoe, and to do irhaterer might be deemed reqnisite 
to remove all filth^as well as to fill up all stagnant pocds and ponds 
of water, of which flnom the natural conformation of the groimd, 
there were too many existing. Under the authority thns granted, 
the Sanitary Committee at once proceeded to a visitation of the 
city, especially in those places wiiere the sad experience of 1849 
and 1854 had tanght ns to fear an outbreak of the disease. Many 
pools of stagnant water were filled np, and the city ordinances, di- 
recting the cleaning out oi the ^nvj wells, were directed to be 
carried oat ; and the ordinanee directing the removal of all pig 
sties within tiie city limits, directed to be enforced with absolute 
strictness. Many peraons strongly objected to the enforcement of 
this latter ordinance, and tried every expedient to evade it ; and 
we were informed by some of those wbo were af^xnnted to carry 
it into elfect, that in several cases the pigs were fonnd concealed 
and dcHnesticated in the cellars, which were fonnd reeking with 
filth and decaying garbage. No wonder that in such places, and 
with such snrronndings, disease and death held carmval; and it 
was in just snch a place that the disease first appeared and pre- 
vailed with great malignity and fotality. The first nndonbted case 
of cholera occurred in the city of Gamden on tiie SSth of June, in 
a ^Dsall court at the loot (^ one of the streets, whose outiet to tiie 
river was cut off by tiieDqpot of the Gamden and AmboyBi^lroad. 
It was in a loeaKty moetly inhabited by Irish laborers,]n old hooses, 
with no ceOan, owing to the nature rf tiie ground. Tfan ease 
proved fotal; and no othar case was met with untQ the SStii of 
July, jQst one month subsequent to the first case, and near Ike ttme 
locality as the first one. Theatteiitioni^theSaiiitaiyOMiimittee 
was at once called to tiie place, and active measures were adopted 
to have it iwoperly cleansed and diai]^Med» wMch it sadly need- 
ed. The privy weDs were fouadfall and rtnmngover ; pign were 
fiyimdin the sheds near the deetsyand in one insCanoe^) 



irem fi^ng in the garrelit ▲ nuoib^ oi cases Mowed ii^ ri^id 
ffiie0€«mon, iiearly er^rj one of which proved kM, But it may be 
mentioiied as a remarkable fact as well aa cm^cidewe, that as soo^ 
as the place was pro^^xij cleansed aa^ disinfected, l^e disease at 
once disappeared from the locality. Another case in the same vi- 
cinity was seen on the 18th of Auguat, nearly three weeks from the 
time that the locality was cleansed and disinfected by the Sanitary 
Committee. On exannnati(»i, a subterranean drain was found im^ 
mediately in front of the house in which 14ie last-named case 
ecenrred, which had become choked up. It was at once cleaned 
out and disii^ected, and no more cases were seen there. Two or 
three oliier cases were, however, found in a distant part of the city, 
and one or two on the vessels in the harbor, but they seemed to be 
apomdic cases, brought on by intemperance or ezpo^ure, and the 
select of the premonitory diarrhcpa. 

On the 2l8t of September a case occurred in the lower part of 
tiie city, in a locality inhabited by poor Germans and negroes. No 
direct connection could be traced between this locality and the one 
previously infected, but it was in a part of the town in which liie 
yards of ike houses were from one to two feet below the grade of 
the streets surroun^ng the blockt Quite a number of cases fol- 
lowed the first case alluded to abovo, almost all of which were rap- 
idly fatal. The same sanitary measure^ of clean9ing and disinfect- 
ing the place were at once r^isorted to, with tiie same happy effect 
of immediately arresting the spread of the disease, not a single 
case occurring after the disinfecting process had been completed. 
A full and very interesting report of the cholera in Camden hap 
beeaearefully prepared by Dr. John R. Stevenson, Chairman of the 
Sanitary Committee of the Camden Cily Medical Society, From thjis 
rq)ort most of the above facts have beesi derived. This r^>ort 
your Beporter begs leave to append to this, as it contains many 
fiftcts of file highest interest^ and may be relied upon for the accu- 
racy of all its statements!* Appended to the report of Pr* Steven- 
son is a very interesting se* of tableSi pyejpftied by m accurate 



232 MEDICAL BOCIETY OP NEW JERSEY. 

observer, Mr. James Lippencot. They comprise a full set of Met- 
eorological Tables of the months of June, July, August, September 
and October, 1866, with the moan temperatures and relative hu- 
midity of the corresponding months of 1864 and '65. The total 
number of cases of cholera in Camden in 1866, were 39, of which 
30 proved fatal, showing that the disease is of as great, if not 
greater fatality, than in the epidemics of 1849 and 1854, and that 
our great reliance must be placed on proper sanitary and hygienic 
precautions, to prevent the onset of the disease, and to stamp it out 
where it does occur. In this connection may be mentioned a very 
instructive fact. On the outskirts of our city there is a settlement 
of blacks, living, for the most part, without any regard to cleanli- 
ness, and without any sanitary precautions. In this settlement 
lived the person who was employed to clean out the privy wells in 
the locality where the disease first appeared. This man died after 
a short illness, followed by two others in the same household. It 
was found, on examination of the premises, that a large number of 
pigs were kept fed on the refuse slops collected from diflFerent fam- 
ilies in Camden, and brought there, more than a mile distant, and 
fed to the pigs in a half decomposed state. And in addition to 
this, near this settlement, was the dumping ground for large quan- 
tities of night soil, brought from the privy wells of Camden. It 
was only covered up by a thin coating of earth, which the heavy 
showers of summer often washed away. With those surroundings, 
it was no matter of surprise that many fatal cases occurred in this 
locality ; and as it was outside the corporate limits of the city, the 
Sanitary Commission of Camden were powerless to act, or to take 
any active measures to abate the nuisance. No accurate statistics 
of the mortality here could be obtained, but as far as could be as- 
certained, the deaths were 25, with but one or two recoveries. 
Your Reporter has heard of but one other case of cholera in the 
county, and that was at Winslow, more than 25 miles from Cam- 
den. At this place (Winslow,) it prevailed with great fatality in 
1849. It is the seat of large glass works, operated by a great 
number of workmen. 



REPORTS OP DISTRICT SOCIETIES. 233^ 

In regard to the treatment of cholera, as it was seen with us, 
little need be said. In a large majority of the cases, the curable 
stage was past before the patient was put under any treatment at J 
all; the patients, with but very few exceptions, being among a 
poor and degraded class, living in filth, poverty and intemperance. . 
They almost all, without exception, had the premonitory diarrhoea 
fix)m periods varying from one to two or three days ; and when 
the cholera once began, the stage of collapse came on with great 
rapidity, when little could be done, except to keep up the vital 
powers for a time by active stimulation, both internally and exter- 
nally. Calomel, opium, camphor and capsicum were given with 
apparent advantage, with sinapisms, dry heat and frictions to the 
skin. Opium had to be used with caution, for fear of producing 
cerebral congestion, which was almost always fatal. In some of 
the cases which occurred in the latter part of September and Oc- 
tober, the use of belladonna and strychnine, thrown under 
the skin by the hypodermic syringe, resulted in great advan- 
tage under the care of Dr. Alexander Marcy. They seemed 
to rouse the prostrated, nervous energy, and produce warmth 
of skin and more action in the heart. Several of the cases of 
recoveries were treated under this plan; and altogether, it seems 
well worthy of more extended trial, should the disease make its 
appearance again. 

Intermittent and remittent fever prevailed in the rural districts 
of our county in many localities, from July to the last of October. 
In some districts along the water courses but few farm houses were 
exempt. The intermittent fever was mostly of a tertian type at 
first, but if neglected or improperly treated, passing into a quoti- 
dian or remittent fever. Typhoid fever was of much less frequen- 
cy than in some previous years, but the remittents were of a 
tedious character, often lasting for three weeks. Quinine contin- 
ues, as heretofore, to be our main reliance in the treatment of our 
malarial fevers, but it is a matter of common observation among 
medical men, that it must be used in much larger doses than were 
30 



234 MISDIGAIi SOGIETT OF KEW JEBSBT. 

thought requisite a few years ago ; and occasional repetitions of 
the medicine must be resorted to in order to prevent the constant 
tendency to recur on the second or third hebdominal period. 
With regard to the greater frequency of intermittents now than in 
former years, much speculation has been indulged in. One impor. 
tant feet may be mentioned as having some bearing on this point. 
It is a well established feet that the numerous creeks with which 
our country is intersected have become much shallower and more 
sluggish within a few years, the head of navigation in most of them 
being from five to eight miles nearer their mouth than it was years 
ago ; and the tide in these creeks does not run with the same rap- 
idity it did a few years ago. This shallowness of the streams has 
been attributed by the boatmen who navigate them, to the clearing 
off of the timber along the course of the streams, and the conse- 
quent drying up of the numerous springs which served as feeders 
to the streams. Another fact may also be mentioned. The streams 
already alluded to as running through the county are lined with a 
great extent of marsh land. These marshes have been reclaimed 
from the tide by means of banks, and then properly drained by 
means of sluices and ditches, placed near the level of low water. 
For many years these sluices and ditches served to drain the 
meadows so that they could be easily cultivated. But it is a well 
established fact that these meadows have, in the course of years, 
gradually settled down, so that at the present time many of them 
are but little above the level of low water in the streams, render- 
ing their drainage imperfect, and the meadows themselves wet and 
boggy, producing only a coarse grass and rushes, where, when the 
meadows were properly drained, corn and good hay were every 
year produced in great abundance. This has the effect of causing 
many acres of low and wet land all through the county favorable 
to the production and dissemination of malaria. It is in the farm 
houses thus situated that intermittents are much more frequent 
than they were years ago. Your Reporter can point out several 
farm houses, which are thus situated along the margins of these 
pluggish streams, that are now always afflicted each year with in- 



BBPOBTS OP DISTRICT SOCIETIES. 235 

termittent fever from July to October, where he has been assured 
by their owners intermittents were formerly rarely known. 

With the exception of the cholera in Camden, and the autumnal 
intermittents in the country, our county has been remarkably 
healthy during the past year, and can compare favorably with the 
other counties of the State. 

Richard M. Cooper, M. D., Reporter. 



A History op the Cholera in Camden in 1866, and op the 
Measures Adopted for its Prevention. 

The members of the Camden City Medical Society, having in re- 
membrance the previous severe visitations of cholera to this city 
in 1849 and 1854. and in consideration of the frequent communica- 
tion between this city and those of Philadelphia and New York, 
deemed it wise to appoint, at their quarterly meeting in September, 
1865, a Committee of four of their members, who were instructed 
to adopt such measures as might tend to prevent an invasion of the 
city by cholera. 

At this time Camden, a city containing a little over eighteen 
thousand people, was probably as filthy, in comparison with its 
size, as any city in the Union. The drainage of the streets, owing 
to the nature of the ground, is necessarily superficial and very im- 
perfect, but few of the streets running at right angles to the Dela- 
ware river having direct communication between their gutters and 
the tide-water of the river; the most of them emptied the contents 
of their gutters either on to the flats along the water's edge, or 
else on to lots adjacent, where they formed small ponds, fi'om 
which the excess of water passed oflf by evaporation, reeking with 
foul and unwholesome effluvia. Garbage, coal ashes, and other 
filth were constantly thrown by citizens into the streets, (most of 
which are unpaved) and allowed to remain there, until a negligent 
Street Contractor felt inclined to skim oflF the surface and cart it 
away. The cesspools, shallow in depth, because the water in this 



236 MEDICAL SOCIETY OlP NEW JERSEY. 

city rises to within a few feet of the surface, were, in many places 
inhabited by the poorer classes, fall and overflowing upon the sur- 
face of the ground, contaminating the atmosphere with their poison- 
ous gasses. Another great nuisance was the numerous pig-sties 
which, in the course of years, had been allowed to be erected in 
the yards of the houses of the lower classes in all parts of the city, 
in which hogs were fed on slops and garbage ; these, in conjunc- 
tion with the lilth of the animals, emitted a most foul odor. 

The first action of the Committee was to effect a change for the 
better in the sanitary condition of the city. The attention of the 
City Council was called to it, and to the probable early advent of 
cholera amongst us. 

This body courteously received the suggestions of the Commit- 
tee, promptly acted upon them, by instructing its Sanitary Com- 
mittee to enforce the ample and plenary health ordinances, which 
were found to be equal to any emergency ; directed that a com- 
plaint book should be kept open at the Health OflBce, in which 
citizens might enter complaints of nuisances ; issued a public no- 
tice, warning citizens that cholera might be expected here the en- 
suing season ; ordered the removal of all nuisances, and published 
the health ordinances of the city, with a prohibition against their vio- 
lation. These manifestoes were not allowed to remain a dead letter. 
The authorities acted, during the balance of 1865, and during 1866, 
with a promptness and energy highly commendable. A new Street 
Contractor was appointed, who cleansed the streets thoroughly, 
fortnightly, during the warm weather ; permanent and temporary 
drains were constructed to carry oflF all stagnant waste water from 
the streets; stagnant ponds were filled up; pigs and pig-sties 
were entirely excluded firom the city ; all complaints of nuisances 
were at once investigated, and nuisances abated. In fact, by the 
summer of 1866, the sanitary condition of the city had been so 
changed, that Camden was as clean as any city in the country. 

As soon as the hot weather commenced, the Committee of the 
Medical Society, (June 23, 1866,) prepared a circular, recommend- 
ing the use of disinfectants. This circular was in the main copied 



REPORTS OP DISTRICT SOCIETIES. 237 

from the one issued by the New York Board of Health, naming as 
suitable substances to be used in public and private places, houses, 
cellars, cesspools and in all filthy localities, quicklime, charcoal pow- 
der, chloride of lime, sulphate of iron, and permanganate of pot- 
ash. Full directions were given how to use them, and attention 
was especially called to the importance of their use in disinfecting 
the rooms, clothing, bed-clothing and discharges of any persons 
who might become sick with cholera. 

When cholera appeared in the city, the Sanitary Committee 
delegated to the Medical Committee authority to put in execution 
any measures they might deem advisable to prevent its extension, 
and the officers of the first-named Committee were instructed to 
carry out all orders received by them from the latter. 

The plan pursued to check the extension of cholera was as fol- 
lows : Each physician in the city having been requested to report 
any case of the disease occurring in his practice to the oflBce of the 
Sanitary Committee, so soon as a notice of a case was received, 
the premises where the patient lived were carefully inspected, and 
any filth found there was at once removed. The cesspool was dis- 
infected by throwing into it a solution of sulphate of iron, in the 
proportion of about two pounds to a common pail-full of water. 
Chloride of lime was then cast into it and around it — spread over 
any place upon which filth had rested, and directions were given 
to have it placed in open vessels, in the sick room, and other parts 
of the house. Upon the recovery or death of the patient, the 
clothing and bed-clothing were directed to be either destroyed, or 
else boiled, and disinfected with chloride of lime if white, and per- 
manganate of potash if colored. If the patient died, the family 
were directed to have the body buried without delay. 

Notwithstanding the care taken to preserve the cleanliness of 
the city, cholera appeared here on June 25th. Between that date 
and October 20th, thirty-nine cases occurred, but at no time did it 
become epidemic. The type of the disease was malignant ; thirty 
cases were fatal. The following is a tabular list of all the cases, 
with the particulars of each so far as could be ascertained : 



238 



MEDICAL 60CIETY OF KEW JEBSBT. 



OOODPATIOa. 



*BI8ID»0B. 



PRIDISPOBIira OAUBI. 



Jane 26 
July 25 

" 26 

" 27 
" 30 
" 30 
« 30 
Aug. 4 

" 11 

" 18 
" 21 

« 23 

Sept. 6 

" 12 

a 17 
« 18 

« 21 

" 21 



« 22 

" 24 

" 24 

*» 26 



HoBtler 

Laborer 

Child of above 

Seaman .••••! 
Laborer^s child 
Laborer's child 
Wife of laborer 
child4p)od parentg 

Laborer 

Laborer^s child 
Seaman .... 



Merchant. 
Mechanic . 



2dandMickleBt8. 



Vessel in port. . . . 
2dandMtcklest8. 



Lab^ng woman 

Shipping mast. 
Col'id seaman. 



88q.N2d&MickleBt 

2d and 3fickle sts. . . . 
Vessel in port 

10sq.SE2d<feMickle 

8 " S " '* 

6 " N " " 

12 " S " " 
Vessel in port 



Laborer 

Laborer 

Ma8t.mechanic 



2d and Line sts. 



" 25 
*• 27 



" 29 
" 29 



Oct. 



1 

" 1 

" 1 

" 1 

" 1 

" 5 

« 5 

« 7 

« 13 



Laborer 

Wife of No. 20 
Fish peddler. 

City official.. 

Mechanic.... 
Laborer^s child 
Laborer^s child 
CoPrd laborer. 
CoVrd laborer. 
Col'rd laborer. 
CoVrd female.. 
CoPrd female.. 

Lady 

Bartender .... 
Col'rd laborer. 

Laborer 

Col'rd laborer. 
Ship Carpenter 
Ship Carpenter 
Seamstress.. 



4sq.E2d&Micklest 

12 " " « 

12 " ' " « 

7sq. SE 2d&Linest. 



6 sq. S " " 
2d and Line sts 

U U II 

u u u 



2sq. S 2d & Line sts. 

u u a 



B2d&3Iicklest 
S 2d & Line sts. 
S " *' 

SE *• " 

SE « " 

SE " " 

SE " " 



Unknown 

Unknown 

^ Had chol. in&n, 
I previously 

Unknown 

Unknown 

Unknown 

Unknown 

Unknown 

{ Had been intoxi- 
) cated two weeks 

Unknown 

Unknown 

^ Lived prudent — 
( wealthy 

Unknown 

C Very poor — ^been 

< to a party night 
( previous 

Over 60 years old 

Unknown 

C Been living on 

< bread and water 
( for economy. . 

Unknown 

Been to a public 
supper 2 nights 

previous 

Subject to chron- 
ic diarrhoea... 
do do 

Unknown 

!Had' diarrhoea — 
eat raw oysters 
night previous 
nknown 

Unknown 

Unknown 

Unknown 

Unknown 

Unknown 

Unknown 

Unknown 

Unknown 

Unknown 

Unknown 

Dissipated , 

Unknown 

Unknown 

70 years old.... 
Unknown 



Died... 
Died... 

Died... 

Died... 
Died... 
Died.. . 
Died... 
Recov.. 

Died... 

Died... 
Died... 

Died... 

Died... 

Died... 

Died... 
Died.. . 

Died... 

Died... 

Recov.. 

Died... 

Died... 
Recov.. 

Recov.. 

Recov.. 
Died.. . 
Died... 
Died.. . 
Died... 
Died.. . 
Died... 
Died... 
Recov.. 
Recov.. 
Recov.. 
Died.. . . 
Died... , 
Recov.. . 
Died.... 
Died... . 



'KoTi.— Beaidenoes are noted as measured in distance from two points, Second and Mickle 
streets, and Second and Line streets, separated from each other hy open lots, a distancs of six 
squares (>^d of a mile) ; these being the only places in which cholera became located. 



BEPOBTS OF DISTBICT SOCIETIES. 239 

The origin of cholera in this city could not be ascertained. Tho 
first victim of the disease was a hostler, who worked at stables 
adjacent to the depot of the Camden and Amboy R. R. Co. His 
residence was likewise adjoining the same depot, in one of the poor- 
est and filthiest localities in the city, inhabited chiefly by the low- 
est class of Irish. After the lapse of a month, the second case 
occurred in a court in the same square. The individual was a la- 
boring man, who was employed at the above named depot. Within 
four days, this case was followed by four more. The houses in this 
court were very filthy ; one house, in which two children died of 
cholera, had a number of chickens domiciled in the kitchen, which 
was covered with their filth. The cess-pools were in a bad condi- 
tion. A hide and tallow establishment joined one side of the court, 
but this had been cleaned and closed by the authorities, some 
weeks previous. The interesting fact concerning this place, is that 
the day (Aug. 1st) upon which the workmen of the Sanitary Com- 
mittee finished cleaning and disinfecting it, witnessed the last case 
of cholera there. Another case occurred in the same neighbor- 
hood, but in another court, on August 18th. The house was clean, 
but immediately in front of it was a drain, through which the waste 
water of the streets passed from the surface into a subterranean 
passage leading to the river. This passage was at once uncover- 
ed, cleaned and disinfected, with the effect of preventing another 
case of the disease. 

On September 21st, a German, living in a low, poor and un- 
healthy locality, inhabited by a mixed population of whites and 
blacks, (Second and Line streets), died of cholera. It is said that 
he had been living for some time on bread and water, in order to 
save money to pay for a little property that he had purchased. 
Within the next ten days there were seven additional cases in this 
locality. The yards here were found to be filthy, several cess- 
pools having overflowed their contents into them. The workmen 
of the Sanitary Committee finished cleaning and disinfecting this 
spot on October 1st, and on that day the last case occurred there. 



240 MEDICAL SOCIBTT OP NEW JERSEY. 

It is not believed that there was any connection between the 
outbreak of cholera at Second and Line streets, and the previous 
one at Second and Mickle streets, for the disease had been un- 
doubtedly eradicated from the latter place. Case No. 9, (August 
11th), was a stranger, who had only lived in the city two weeks, 
and had not been in the infected district. No. 11, (August 23d), 
was a merchant, who evidently contracted the disease in Philadel- 
phia, for his counting room adjoined a court in that city, in which 
the Board of Health reported seven or eight cases of cholera, the 
day previous to his seizure with it. 

The origin of the disease at Second and Line streets, is not 
known. It is very probable that it was contracted in Philadel- 
phia, as most of the isolated cases occurring from time to time in 
our city, are supposed to have originated there ; because, during 
all this period, cholera prevailed in many portions of the former 
city, with which our citizens were having frequent communication. 
It was observed that there was a considerable increase in the num- 
ber of cases reported by the Philadelphia Board of Health, about 
the middle of September, just prior to its outbreak at Second and 
Line streets. Four isolated cases, occurring in the vicinity, and at 
the time of its prevalance at the last-named place, are supposed to 
have been contracted there, as they were known to have been vis- 
iting or nursing friends there sick with cholera. 

Of the three last cases, Nos. 37, 38 and 39, one lived opposite 
to, and two in the same house adjoining, a pork slaughter-house, 
which had been closed all Summer, but had commenced operations 
a few days prior to the date of the occurrence of the first of the 
three cases. The neighbors stated that at times, a very oflensive 
smell was emitted from it. This slaughter-house was cleaned and 
disinfected about the 20th of October, and was afterwards main- 
tained in good condition. 

During the latter part of the Summer and early Autumn of 1866, 
a number of cases of cholera occurred in Kaighnsville, which is 
really a suburb of Camden, although it lies beyond the city limit. 



REPORTS OP DISTRICT SOCIETIES. 241 

It is inhabited almost exclusively by colored persons, and the poor- 
est class of foreigners. As this was beyond the jurisdiction of the 
city authorities, no statistical facts concerning the disease have 
been collected. 

A consideration of the facts above mentioned, impels upon us 
the belief that cholera was carried into our city at several difiFer- 
ent times ; how, and in what manner, or from where, in many in- 
stances there is, unfortunately, no evidence to accurately determine. 
Again, we find that at three places only, was the disease apparent- 
ly communicated from individual to individual — always in the 
presence of filth — decomposing animal or vegetable matter ; and 
that so soon as this filth was removed and its emanations destroy- 
ed, the disease ceased. 

There is one interesting point presented in the history of chole- 
ra in Camden in 1866, deserving of a brief notice : the influence 
the state of the atmosphere exerted over the disease. It has been 
universally observed, that a high temperature favors the develop- 
ment and increase of cholera, while a temperature below the freez- 
ing point generally arrests it. Atmospheric humidity is supposed 
to favor the increase of the disease. M. Tardieu, in his elaborate 
treatise on cholera, says, " Among the atmospheric influences most 
favorable to the development and progress of cholera, there is 
none more active, according to most authors, than humidity of the 
air, especially if connected with an elevated temperature." To il- 
lustrate this subject, we have been furnished through the kindness 
of Mr. James S. Lippincott, the learned correspondent of the 
Smithsonian Institute, and Department ot Agriculture, with a com- 
plete set of meteorological tables, embracing the months of June, 
July, August, September and October, 1866, and the mean temper- 
ature, and relative humidity of the corresponding months of the 
years 1864 and 1865. These observations were made near Had- 
donfield,at a point about four miles distant from Camden, and are 
believed to represent very nearly the atmospheric condition of this 
city, during those periods. We shall only point out a few phe- 
31 



242 



MEDICAL SOCIETY OP NEW JERSEY. 



nomena, submitting the tables with this paper, in the hope that if 
gimilar records can be obtained at other points where cholera pre- 
vailed, their comparison will exhibit more certain knowledge con- 
cerning the, at present, mysterious existing cause of cholera, and 
of the agencies that control its course. 

Our first case of cholera occurred on a hot day, at the commence- 
ment of the first heated term of the season ; the tlicrmometer on 
June 25th, registering 94 deg. at 2 P. M., with a mean for the day 
of 84, in an atmosphere containing 7.44 grains of vapor in a cubic 
foot of air. June and July were both warm months, the mean 
temperature of the former was 7L7 deg., and of the latter 78.62 
deg. The second case of cholera was, however, on a moderately hot 
day, the mean of the thermometer on July 25th, being 76 deg. ; a 
dry day, succeeding the day on which was noted the second direct 
atmosphere of the season, the mean relative humidity of which was 
414, the atmosphere containing 5.32 grains of vapor to the cubic 
foot of air. 

It is remarkable, that during August we were comparatively 
free from cholera, having had only five cases in that month, while 
in September there were seventeen cases, and in October ten cases 
of the disease, although the sanitary condition of the city was bet- 
ter in the last two months, than in the former. That the state of 
the atmosphere exerted an influence upon the disease is certain — 
in what way can, to some extent, be conjectured from an examina- 
tion of the meteorological tables. 

Mean Temperature at Haddoxpikld, N. J. 



ykau. 



JUNE. JULY. AUG. SEPT. OCT. 



18G4. 

1865. 
1866. 



69.22 
73.58 
71.7 



82.85 
81.00 
78.62 



75.39 
72.62 
69.87 



63.36 
69.23 
67.7 



r;1.27 

51.4 

54.6 





Mean Relative Humidity at Haddoxpield, N. J. 




YKAR. 


JUNE. 


JULY. 


AUG. 


SEPT. 


OCT. 


1S04 


64.80 

79.2 

66.33 


65.50 

80.6 

61.09 


76.60 
85.03 
69.33 


77.67 

88.82 
75.06 


77.35 


1S05 


84.6 


1866 


77.43 



REPORTS OP DiSTRtCT SOCIETIES. 243 

From these, it will be observed that the month of August in 
1866, was unusually cool, with a relatively dry atmosphere; 
whereas, generally it is the month that combines the highest rela- 
tive humidity with the greatest heat. September and October, on 
the contrary, were quite equal to their average in temperature and 
relative humidity, the latter running high in percentage during 
both of these months. The thermometer did not fall to the freez- 
ing point, in the Autumn of 1866, until October 26th, six days sub- 
sequent to the last case of cholera in Camden. 

Jno. R. Stevenson, Camden. 



244 



UEDICAL SOCIETT OF NEW JEBSET. 



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BEPORTS OP DISTRICT SOCIETIES. 



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MEDICAL SOCIETY OP NEW JERSEY, 




REPORTS OP DISTRICT SOCIETIES. 249 

CUMBERLAND COUNTY. 

Chairman of the Standing Committee^ Sfc: 

The Medical Society of this district is at present in an unusual- 
ly flourishing condition. The list of members is steadily increas- 
ing, embracing nearly all the practitioners of the county ; and 
their regular semi-annual meetings of April and October are not 
only fully attended, but always seasons of very agreeable social in- 
tercourse, as well as interesting medical discussion. There is with 
us a harmony of feeling and action pervading the profession, freed 
from those petty jealousies and bickerings which so often disturb 
the fellowship of physicians in other places, and an elevated stand- 
ard of professional ethics is honorably maintained by the whole 
corps. 

Within the past year we have been called to mourn the decease 
of two of our most revered and honored members — Dr. William 
B. Ewing, of Greenwich, and Dr. Nathaniel K. Newkirk, of 
Bridgeton. 

The average health of the county for the year past has been re- 
markably good, unmarked by any epidemic or fatal malady, except 
a brief visitation of cholera during a portion of last October — a 
short account of which may not prove uninteresting, and possibly 
be of service to others visited with the same dread pestilence, to 
compare our epidemic with their own. There were a number of 
isolated cases in various parts of the county, but the principal seat 
of its ravages was in the county-town — Bridgeton — and here it 
confined itself principally to one locality, that not in its site or 
surroundings unhealthy, or exposed to any particular infection, but 
still every case of cholera was traceable more or less directly to 
this source. Yet what this hidden morbific cause was, what com- 
mon origin would satisfactorily explain the diverse phenomena of 
its career, never could be discovered, and probably ever will re- 
main a mystery. The malady involved only two or three families 
— the first case being the head of one of them, Mr. H , a lum- 

32 



250 MEDICAL SOCIETY OP NEW JERSEY. 

ber merchant, who had for a few days complained of diarrhoea, 
weakness, etc. ; but on Thursday, September 26th, was seized with 
the well-known choleraic cramps, vomiting, and rice water dis- 
charges, and died the following Saturday. His two children, aged 
respectively ten and twelve years, were then affected, but after an 
alarming illness, eventually recovered. On Sunday night, Septem- 
ber 30th, after attending church, morning and evening, a young 
man in the adjoining family, and living in the house next but one, 
was taken in the night with colliquative diarrhoea, prostration, icy 
coldness, and without any reaction, died about noon of Monday- 
nine hours from his seizure. He was of delicate constitution, and 
scarcely capable of withstanding any severe illness at best. On 
Monday morning another young man, vigorous and healthy, a 
son of the occupant of the house, complained of the same prodrom- 
ic symptoms, and in less than forty-eight hours was a corpse. In 
his case life ebbing away gradually but surely, as though a vein 
had been opened and the blood was slowly oozing away, until its 
great central propulsive organ ceased, simply for want of more 
blood to propel. No coldness, no cramps, except slightly toward 
the last, but vomiting and purging throughout, though at consider- 
able intervals. On the day of his death, his sister was taken in 
like manner, and also an aunt residing in the house, who had been 
nureing at the neighbor's first attacked. The next day another, a 
clerk in the store ; the day following another son ; then in the 
course of a very few days, the father, mother, and two remaining 
daughters, successively, until the whole family were laid low by 
this wasting pestilence. All these in time regained their health, 
after careful nursing and faithful attendance, the convalescence in 
some being rapid, in the rest protracted. On Wednesday, Octo- 
ber 3d, a lady, who had also been nursing in the family of Mr. 
H , complained of diarrhoea, etc. ; which, notwithstanding rem- 
edies used, continued to increase in frequency and severity, attend- 
ed in the latter stages with other choleraic concomitants, until she 
too sank at the end of the fourth day, gradually failing, with bnt 



BEPOBTS OF DISTBICT SOCIETIES. ^ 261 

little pain, no cramps, mind perfectly clear and happy in the pros- 
pect of a speedy entrance to her Heavenly home. 

On Thursday, another attendant in the same family — a woman 
who had washed some of the infected clothing — was taken sudden- 
ly ill, and died in less than twenty-four hours. Thus making fifteen 
cases in ail, each associated with, or members of these two stricken 
families, six of whom died, nine recovered. Other cases occurred 
in some of the surrounding villages, though with less severity ; 
they being for the most part sporadic, while some were imported 
from Philadelphia. About forty cases occurred altogether within 
this county, nearly half proving fatal. 

The particular treatment of these cases by their several medical 
advisers, it would of course be impossible to detail here; sufiSce it 
to say, that the plan which seemed to meet with most success, re- 
storing patients extremely ill, was the administration of calomel 
and opium in large and frequently repeated doses, until the evac- 
uations gave evidence of the presence of bile in them — two or 
three scruples of calomel and ten or twelve grains of opium be- 
ing given in divided doses, the opium producing no soporific 
tendency whatever, alternating this with quinine, beef-es- 
sence, brandy, wine, etc.; while externally, sinapisms, friction, 
and hot applications of bran or ashes, were used in all cases 
presenting coldness, cramps, or severe pain. In several instances 
an emetic of warm salt water relieved the stomach of a dark green- 
ous fluid, oftentimes a yellowish green from the admixture of bil- 
iary matter, after which the patients expressed themselves decid- 
edly more comfortable,, and sank into an easy slumber with great 
relief. 

Outside of this limited district, these " corner cases," as they 
were termed from the location (being at the intersection of two of 
the main streets), cholera did not prevail as an epidemic. And 
why its destructive power should be so rapidly and so fatally felt 
just there, with no apparently adequate cause to induce it, either 
in the water, surrounding influences or atmosphere, is one of those 



252 MEDICAL SOCIETY OF NEW JERSEY. 

mysteries which belongs to the undeveloped secrets of epidemics 
in general. A specimen of the water from the well used by the 
: families for drinking and domestic purposes, was transmitted to 
Philadelphia for chemical analysis ; but the result gave no clue to 
any toxical ingredient, nor did the water differ in any marked re- 
spect from other water in daily use in every household. Neither 
were the outhouses and buildings in an offensive condition, though 
after the disease appeared, these were all plentifully sprinkled 
with lime and other disinfectants, as a simple hygienic precaution. 
The people themselves were refined, and of cleanly habit ; so that 
any palpable common source still remains involved in complete ob- 
scurity. 

Was it then contagious ? Numerous friends waited on the sick, 
others also washed the clothing, etc. ; yet all the attendants were 
unharmed, save those two mentioned. It is true that the cholera 
evacuations from the first family seized, (Mr. H.'s) were merely 
emptied on the ground, not buried and disinfected, like those of 
the family near by, occurring afterward ; and though the conta- 
gious nature of this effluvium seems well established de facto — yet 
will this sufficiently account for the spread of the disease in its pe- 
culiar manner ? None of those handling the stools in either family 
were attacked, nor those living in the house on the opposite side of 
the yard ; neither were the inmates of the comer house particular- 
ly exposed to their influence. Some are still disposed to ascribe 
it to the water, but the greatest water drinker of the family suffer- 
ing most, was the slightest affected ; others, to the cow's milk ; but 
some of those most violently seized, drank no milk at all. Was it 
not rather some common atmospheric influence, undefined, unknown 
with certainty as yet to human ken, and cognizant only to Him by 
whose will is allowed "the pestilence that walkcth in darkness?" 

Apart from this epidemic, there have been but few other preva- 
lent diseases to recoi'd. The winter and spring of 1867 have been 
almost wholly exempt from scarlatina, diphtheria, and variola. In- 
deed, in general, there has been much less of the maladies pecnliar 



REPORTS OF DISTRICT SOCIETIES. 253 

to the winter months, than usual. January and February, although 
showing a low, thermometri'C temperature, and more snow on the 
ground than ordinary, were nevertheless dry, and free from raw, 
chilling winds, and it was not until the northeast rain storms of 
March that bronchial and pulmonary complaints prevailed to any 
great extent. 

A few instances of vernal intermittent fever have come under 
our observation, but easily amenable to antiperiodic treatment. 

In the case of Taenia, mentioned in the last report by Dr. Wil- 
liam Elmer, there has been a return of the symptoms, and after 
the continued use of 01. Terebinth, gtt. x Qt. d., for a fortnight, 
three and one-half yards more were passed. Infiision of pumpkin- 
seed, santonin and other anthelmintics, having been tried without 
avail. 

But little of surgical practice has transpired worthy of note. 
Two amputations of the arm, one of the shoulder joint, the other 
below the elbow, each the result of accident ; both made good re- 
coveries, and the latter having been fitted with an artificial limb 
of the Kolbe pattern, is now used with ease and freedom, the in- 
genious appliance serving as a valuable substitute for the natural 
arm lost. 

William Elmer, Jr., Reporter, 



ESSEX COUNTY. 

Chairman of Standing Committee^ fyc, : 

Dear Sir : — The year with the profession in our county, has 
been marked by no especial epidemics. In common with our neigh- 
bor cities, we dreaded the invasion of the cholera. We were vis- 
ited, but the cases were few — twenty cases in all were reported in 
Newark, and one in Orange, apparently imported there from New- 
ark. Besides these your reporter is informed of none others. 



264 MEDICAL SOCIETY OP KEW JEBSBY. 

The first case occurred in Green street, in Newark, on the 19 th 
of June, and proved rapidly fiital. A few days afterward a second 
case, in the same locality, likewise fatal ; but the cases had no 
communication, nor could any opportunity of contagion be traced, 
nor cause for the outbreak of the disease. The street is consid- 
ered as healthy as any in the city, and no imprudence on the part 
of the patients was discovered. 

The next cases reported occurred on the 18th of August, in 
Camden stl'eet, narrow and crowded, but on high ground, and con- 
sidered dry and healthy. Four or five deaths occurred in one 
house in very rapid succession, but the house was emptied and 
cleaned, and the clothing left by the unfortunate patients destroyed, 
and the disease spread no further. 

A little later, cases occurred in South Canal street, one in Mar- 
ket street, one in Newark street, and one in Walnut street — streets 
in diflferent parts of the city, and both high and low, and for enough 
apart to preclude all idea of contagion. The patient who died in 
Orange had attended the funeral of a person in Newark who had 
died of cholera. The most active measures of sanitary research 
were observed throughout the city, and immediately upon the re- 
port of a case, the dwellings were as speedily as possible vacated, 
and the Phoenix Disinfecting Powder freely used.' A kind Provi- 
dence spared us a prevailing epidemic. • ' 

Small-pox has prevailed too much, and a carelessness in using 
the preventive means can only be deplored until our laws compel 
its observance. 

Scarlet fever has not been prevalent. Attention has been di- 
rected to the use of the solution of bi sulphite of soda in scarlet 
fever, and in other diseases of blood poisoning. 

Dr. William S. Ward, of Newark, has employed the remedy in 
a severe case of scarlatina in his own family, as well as in several 
other cases, and speaks in the highest terms of its efiScacy. He 
thinks he has found a remedy at once reliable and eflfective, and 
administers it throughout the whole continuance of the disease. 



REPORTS OF DISTRICT SOCIETIES. 256 

Rheumatism has prevailed, but no more than usual in our change- 
able climate, nor have the cases been reported as more severe 
than usual. The hypodermic injection of the salts of morphia, has 
been frequently applied and earnestly recommended, both as a 
palliation and a cure. In one case the single application seemed 
to produce a complete relief, and the patient convalesced without 
further assistance. 

I append to this report a case of Epilepsy, treated by the Bro- 
mides, under the care of Dr. Pierson, of Orange. 

Arthur Ward, Reporter. 

Case of Epilepsy, Treated by Bromide of Potassium. 

The patient was an unmarried man of high intellectual attain- 
ments and of robust constitution. The fiistconvulsion came on 
suddenly, at the age of twenty-five, without any previous breaking 
down of health. He had been actively engaged in performing the 
duties of pastor, preparing and preaching from two to three ser- 
mons weekly. From early puberty he had been troubled with ex- 
cessive nocturnal emissions. The fiist convulsion occurred in Feb- 
ruary. 1860. No especial remedial agents, save that of perfect 
relaxation from all mental exeition, were lesorted to for a period of 
about one year. During that period the convulsions would recur 
on an average (Jnce in twelve days. The prostration alter a con- 
vulsion would often last two days. In March; 1861, upon the ad- 
vice of Dr. Alonzo Clark, he commenced taking Tinct. Cantharides, 
and continued its use for several months with no apparent result. 
During the same year he also wore a seton in the back of the neck. 
The emissions continued; and the patient observed that the weeks 
they were the most frequent, the convulsions were most likely to 
occur. Looking upon the emissions as a probable cause of the 
convulsions, various remedies were resorted to for the relief of 
that diflBculty, among which was the daily introduction of a No. 12 
bougie. No relief, however, was experienced. 



256 MEDICAL SOCIETY OP NEW JERSEY. 

On the 10th of August, 1865, we determined to try the Bro- 
mides, giving them after Brown Sequard's formula : 
j^t Potass. Bromid 3 vi. 

Ammon. Bromid 3ij. 

Potass. Bi Carb. gr. xv. 

Tinct. Colomb. 5 ss. 

Aq. Font. 5 iij. M. 
Two teaspoonsful thrce times a day after meals. Up to this time 
the emissions and convulsions had continued to occur as frequently. 
He had had in all one hundred and seventy-three convulsions. The 
longest interval between any two had been but twenty days, and 
that occurred but once. The last convulsion, previous to the tak- 
ing of the Bromides, was on the 3d day of August. The next one 
was on the 26th of September, after an interval of fifty-four days. 
In November he had three, and in December he had three. About 
the 1st of January we doubled the dose of the medicine. The 
record of the fits for 1866, were as follows : January 3, 5, 12 ; Feb- 
ruary 5, 10; March 16; May 10, 24; October 19. The convul- 
sions during that year were much lighter than they had formerly 
been, and the prostration amounted to nothing. The patient 
would usually get up immediately after an attack, and go about his 
business as though nothing had occurred. 

Since the 19th of October, 1866, he has had but one, and then 
consciousness was lost but for a few moments. He has continued 
to take the increased dose daily, with a few exceptions, up to the 
present time (May 1, 1867). He would take about twelve drachms 
of the Bromide of Potassium every fifteen days. At present he 
appears in vigorous health and in good spirits, and for the past six 
months has been engaged as an Assistant Actuary in a Life Insur- 
ance Office. He is entirely relieved of the nocturnal emissions.* 

* Since this pnper was placed in the bands of the Standing Committee there has been a 
i«tnrn of the convulsions— three having occnrred within the past two months. He had con- 
tinued the use of the Bromides uninterruptedly. Since the last fit the dose has been increased 
one toaspoonfal. The case is of interest as exhibiting the tolerance of the medicine. 

W. P., Ja. 
July 17, 1807. 



REPORTS OP DISTRICT SOCIETIES. 257 

1 have administered the Bromides in other cases of epilepsy, but 
in no case with so marked a result. I believe it is especially ap- 
plicable in those cases resulting from excessive nocturnal emis- 
sions. I have given the Bromide of Potassium in several cases of 
puerperal convulsions, and always with very marked eflFect in con- 
trolling the convulsions. I have usually given it in half drachm 
doses every two hours. Recently, in a violent case of mania a 
potu, I administered it in half drachm doses every hour, and after 
the fotfrth dose the patient fell into a quiet sleep, and remained in 
it for twenty hours, when he awakened all right. 



GLOUCESTER COUNTY. 

Chairman of Standing Committee, Src. : 

'Dear Sir : — I have the honor to submit the following cursory 
report of free and easy talks of members of the Gloucester County 
District Medical Society, at the last semi-annual and the last an- 
nual meeting, on epidemics and cases. 

Dr. J. R. Sickler reported having had two cases of true Asiatic 
cholera, commencing with diarrhoea for a few days, and succeeded 
by cramps, which continued from nine to twelve hours, followed 
by collapse, and death following in from five to six hours. 

Dr. Howell reported three cases, all very similar, commencing 
with diarrhoea, followed in a few hours with cramps, copious rice 
water discharges, which he considered characteristic of the disease. 
In these cases he relied upon Tr. Opii., Tr. Camph. aa 3 ss., Cal. 
gr. X. Pulv. Opii gr. iss. M., all given at once, and in every case relief 
was obtained. After treatment, Cal. et Opii. Regulated diet, per- 
fect rest in recumbent position. Ice, no water. 

Dr. Fithian lauded highly in diarrhoea, dysentery and cholera 
morbus, the use of Ao^toa^er,givenintablespoonful doses, frequently 
repeated. 

33 



258 MEDICAL SOCIETY OP NEW JERSEY. 

The sum of the treatment agreed upon by all, was perfect rest 
in a recumbent position. Cal. and old dry Opium, hot applica- 
tions, hot drinks in tablespoonful quantities, injections of Starch 
and Tr. Opii ; hips and feet raised higher than superior portions of 
the body. ^ Pulv. Opii (old dried) gr. ij., Cal. gr. x, Tr. Opii, Tr. 
Camph. aa gtt. xxx. M., given at once ; afterward follow by Op. 
and Cal., if the first prescription was retained and had the desired 
eflFect. 

Dr. flalsey reported favorably of Tr. Opii. gtt. x. Chloroform 
gtt. ii j , Spts. Camph. gtt. xv. M., and repeated every half hour in 
obstinate cases of cholera morbus, and suggested it in cases of 
cholera, as it has a specific influence on the spasms and sick stom- 
ach. He and Dr. C. Garrison reported a large number of such 
cases, all of which were relieved speedily by the use of the above 
prescription. 

All reported having had to contend with scarlatina in a mild 
form, but had much trouble with the sequelae, caused by want of 
proper care in diet, and avoidance of contracting colds. 

Dr. Fithian reported a case of what might be called •* spontane- 
ous chancre," accompanied by bubo, which had been treated by 
some empyric of Camden as such, and, truly, very much resembled 
it in every respect, but finally proved itself to be Fungus Haemato- 
des, which ultimately killed the patient, a very respectable Chris- 
tian man, aged about fifty years. 

At the annual meeting, last week. Dr. Reeve reported a number 
of cases of bilious pleurisy, of an intermittent type, which yielded 
readily to free purgation by Calomel and Cathartics, followed by 
Quinia and Tonics in the convalescent stage. 

Dr. Halfloy reported two cases of bilious colic, very grave and 
obstinate ; groat difficulty in effecting an evacuation of the bowels, 
and when ho did succeed, it was accompanied by large discharges 
of scybalaa, in one oaso to the amount of fully a pint. Passages 
were not effected in either case till about ten or twelve drops of 
01. Tiglii had boon administered in the form of pills. Each case 



REPORTS OP DISTRICT SOCIETIES. 259 

was threatened with inflammation of the bowels afterward, which 
was combated by the usual antiphlogistic means, and both cases 
recovered. 

Also a case of premature labor, in which the foetus was delivered 
feet foremost. When he first saw the case the feet were hanging 
out of the vulva. By introducing the finger well up, the head was 
found to be retained in the womb, and that in a state of hour-glass 
contraction. He waited, and sent home for his instruments. When 
he returned to the room, after an absence of a few minutes, the 
body was detached from the head, leaving the latter in the womb. 
The woman (young and unmarried) had made traction on the body 
in his absence and caused the separation. He introduced his hand 
and tried to overcome the rigid contraction, and thus hoped to get 
the head away, but found it impossible. Sent for Dr. Charles Gar- 
rison, who tried the same, under the influence of chloroform, and 
also tried to secure it by instruments, but all eflForts proved of no 
avail. We let her rest about five or six hours, when nature, over- 
coming the constriction and the womb contracting, forced the head 
into the vagina, from which it was readily removed. She had con- 
tracted a severe cold ; the day before had had a hard chill. Pneu- 
monia set in, of a grave type, which, in three or four days, carried 
her to her grave. 

Dr. Sickler reported a similar case, which he had, in connection 
with Dr. C. P. Clark. They finally succeeded in removing the 
head by means of the forceps. He also reported two cases of cer- 
rebro spinal meningitis, both of which resulted fatally. 

Dr. Pithian reported a case of paralysis, coming on gradually, 
and finally total paralysis of all the motor nerves and muscles be- 
low the seat of injury in the cervical region of the spine. He was 
supplanted in the treatment of the case by a homoeopathist, who 
said he could cure the case, but the boy died in a short time. 

Dr. Halsey reported a case of an elderly colored man, who, in 
attempting to load a log upon a log wagon, was jammed be- 
tween it and the wheel. He complained considerably of 



260 MJBDICAL SOCtETT OF NEW JEBSET. 

the braise, but sent for no physician till some four or five weeks 
had elapsed, when Dr. H. was called in, and found him suffering 
from partial paralysis of one foot and leg, which gradually in- 
creased, and finally his lower extremities, and still later, his lower 
bowels and bladder became totally paralysed also. The bruise 
was in the lower lumbar region, which finally became very sore ; a 
large mnss sloughed out, about five by seven inches, and cleared 
everything down to the spinal column. He gradually sank from 
exhaustion. What seemed most singular, the patient never com- 
plained of the least pain or suffering in the region of the injury. 
Respectfully submitted. 

Luther G. Halsey, Reporter. 

SwEDESBORo', N. J., May 27, 1867. 



HUDSON COUNTY. 

Chairman of the Standing Committee^ 8rc. : 

It is again my pleasing duty to extend congratulations on the 
approach of another annual convocation. 

At our last we bid adieu to the past century ; at the present we 
hail with bright anticipations the opening of the new, trusting that 
the same kind Providence which has watched over us through the 
past, may be recognized by each of us, and relied on as a guard 
and guide for the future. 

Since our last assembling death has invaded our ranks, and re- 
moved from us one of the founders of our Society. 

Charles Cook, who died January 17, 1867, was cut down in the 
prime of life ; he literally died with his harness on, nobly battling 
disease and administering the kindly ofiices of his profession. 

The period embraced in this report, in consequence of the 
change in the time of meeting, is sixteen months, during which 
time we have been subjected to extreme vicissitudes of weather, 



y*-. 



REPORTS OP DISTRICT SOCIETIES. 261 

and although the heat of the past summer was much above the 
average, and the winter following characterized by great and rapid 
changes, the amount of sickness did not exceed that of previous 
years. *S 

Dr. Payne, of Bergen Point, writes : " The malarious influence 
still lingers with us, though not with so much force as formerly — 
the cases yielding readily to small doses of some antiperiodic." 

Dr. P. also reports : " In the fall some cases of enteric fever 
came under treatment — none fatal." 

In Jersey City, during the spring of 1866, and also in the autumn 
of that year, remittent fever prevailed to a considerable extent; 
many of the cases were of a very mild form, requiring little or no 
treatment. Interspersed with these, typhoid, of a very severe 
type, was met with, which, however, rarely proved fatal. 

Dr. Buck, of Lafayette, writes: "The prevailing diseases during 
the past year have been generally of a zymotic character." Dr. B. 
notes "an unusual number of cases of erysipelas," also, " several 
fatal cases of scarlatina, and, during the winter months, diseases of 
the throat assumed almost the form of an epidemic. Several of 
the latter exhibited, in a slight degree, the peculiar symptoms of 
diphtheria." 

Dr. B. also speaks of the use of the sulphite of soda in the cases of 
erysipelas, in which " the improvement in all the symptoms was 
prompt and decisive from the commencement of the treatment." 

Dr. J. E. Culver, of Hudson City, writes : " During the past 
year malarial diseases have outnumbered those of any other class 
prevalent in Hudson county. Intermittent and remittent fevers 
are here of every-day occurrence. Petechial typhus, with pulmon- 
ary and cerebral complications, is comparatively rare. Typhoid 
fever, with gastro enteric complications, and the characteristic le- 
sions, is very rarely met with. Both intermittents and remittents 
vary in severity according to a variety of circumstances, but only 
a very few cases'partake of the congestive type." 

Dr. C. reports **less than the customary average of scarlet fever 



MEDICAL SOCIETY OP NEW JERSEY. 

and hooping cough," and speaks highly of the eflPects of Brom ide 
of Ammonium in the latter disease. 

In the treatment of scarlet fever, Dr. C. remarks: " I have prin- 

y cipally relied on Sulphite of Soda and Lactic Acid as antiseptics, 

Quinine and Iron as tonics, Port Wine and Brandy as stimulants, 

and Beef-tea, Wine-whey, and Milk-punch, whenever the adynamic 

state of the patient required such nourishment. 

In Jersey City scarlatina, simplex and anginosa, prevailed to a 
considerable extent during the past winter, which, however, rarelj 
proved fatal. Some cases of the malignant type occurred, defying 
all treatment, and running their course in from twelve to forty- 
eight hours. 

Dysentery was quite prevalent during the months of January 
and February, 1867, in which severe tenesmus was the more prom- 
inent symptom. No . fatal cases in this vicinity occurred. The 
mineral acids, with opium, were the remedies relied on. The 
fact of this disease occurring at the period it did, is one worthy of 
notice. 

Dr. Payne reports the occurrence of two cases of Asiatic cholera 
at Bergen Point during the past summer, " one of which died in 
six hours, the other recovered under the stimulating treatment — 
Squibbs' Mixture and Brandy." 

In Jersey City there were but three cases reported to me as 
Physician to the Board of Health, all of which were seen by Dr. 
B. A. Watson. Two of these were imported, the other having its 
origin in this city. 

Dr. W.'s report of the latter case is as follows : " J. E., aged 
fifty, a man of very intemperate habits, who had not yet recovered 
from his last debauch^ was seized with cramps in the lower extrem- 
ities and diarrhoea on the morning of August 28, 1866. I saw him 
at 4 o'clock P. M. Learned that the discharges from the bowels 
had been profuse during the day ; cramps increased in force, and 
now existed in the muscles of abdomen and thorax. The patient 
was in a state of collapse. The pulse was frequent, very small 



REPORTS OP DISTRICT SOCIETIES. 263 

and feeble ; surface cold and covered with cold perspiration ; skin 
of a bluish hue, much corrugated in the hands, and when pinched 
up it remained in that condition, having lost all elasticity. There 
was a cadaverous expression of the face, lips purple, tongue of a 
lead color and cold to the touch ; the voice husky and faint. Dr. 
T. R. Varick saw the above case with me, but notwithstanding 
the eflforts made to save our patient, he died the same day, about 6 
o'clock P. M." 

It is a fact worthy of note, that in all previous epidemics of the 
kind, Jersey City has suffered less, in proportion to its population, 
than any other place in the vicinity. 

Hudson City, situated on Bergen ridge, elevated some one hun- 
dred and fifty feet above tide -water, was much more severely at- 
tacked, and the history of its invasion is most graphically described 
in the following communication of Dr. Culver: 

" As early as June, in the summer of 1866, cholera broke out at 
the works of the Lodi Poudrette Manufacturing Company, located 
in the Newark meadows, on the west side of the Hackensack river. 
About sixteen deaths had occurred, when a stampede of the em- 
ployees took place, and put an end to its further ravages. The 
weather was warm and the atmosphere steaming, particularly at 
night. The workmen were compelled to breathe, and eat, and 
drink the putrefying night soil, which impregnated the whole at- 
mosphere in which they lived and everything it enveloped, even 
their own bodies. The sickness seemed to have an adequate cause. 

" July 18, 1866. — Wind west; temperature 85 deg. Fahrenheit 
in the daytime ; hot and steamy night air ; butchered meats spoiled 
with inconvenient rapidity. Five or six deaths from cholera came 
to my knowledge about this time : amongst IJiese the following is 
deemed worthy of relation: A highly respectable and wealthy 
family, of fastidiously cleanly hiabits, suflfered from cholera, super- 
induced by the intolerable stench and eflluvia evolved from the pu- 
trefying carcass of a horse, which had fallen dead only a few rods 
to windward of their residence, and which, through oflBcial neglect, 



264 MEDICAL SOCIETTY OP NEW JERSEY. 

was left unburied for more than a week. At length a poor Ger- 
man, tempted by the compensation oflFered him, bargained to re- 
move and bury the putrid mass. He performed the repugnant 
task according to agreement, and died that very night of cholera 
asphyxia. 

" August 29, 30, 31 — The atmosphere is thermometrically and 
hygrometrically similar to that of July 18th, ult. Four cases of 
cholera occurred, and four deaths. These patients drank from 
shallow wells the impure surface waters, to them noticeably unpal- 
atable ; they breathed air redolent of filth and corruption. Neigh- 
boring privies had overflowed their vaults, and the street gutters 
were disgustingly foul. During the last days of September, and 
early in October, the cases known as the Jay street cholera oc- 
curred — some twelve of which proved fatal. The cholera spread 
at this time only within a circumscribed area, having a clay sub- 
soil overlaid with^ja surface soil of muck, humus and clay mixed, 
and always wet and mirey except during a protracted drouth. 
Jay street is the filthiest alley in Hudson City — a bad smelling 
place at all times, but now its stench was sickening and unbeara- 
ble. A dead dog, pig, cat or fowl, tainted the air to a remarkable 
degree and extent, and yet the carrion was unheeded by the 
wretched denizens. Shallow wells furnished them with water for 
household use, drained from privy vaults, pig-pens, and a surface- 
soil alike abominable. A sluggish east wind prevailed nearly all 
the time, bearing hither from the greater cities lying to the east- 
ward, a foecal odor distinctly cognizable all along the eastern brow 
of the hill. The thermometer ranged from 65 deg. to 78 deg. Fah- 
renheit. The hygrometer showed a damp atmosphere throughout 
the day, which reached the dew-point before or soon after sunset. 
The night air was foggy and suffocating. 

" The Jay street cholera ceased after the use of disinfectants, 
and did not return. The burdened east wind still prevailed, how- 
ever, or alternated with oppressive calms during nearly all the 
month of October. The day temperature averaged 63 deg. Pah- 



REPORTS OP DISTRICT SOCIETIES. 265 

renheit. On the 11th of this month cholera appeared in Beacon 
avenue, in a house 25 by 30 feet, three stories high, with narrow 
stairs ascending through the centre. This small building was sub- 
divided into no less than six tenements for poor families — two on 
each floor, which was at this time crowded with tenants. One 
apartment in the second story was occupied by the owner himself 
and his family, and the floor had been carpeted for twelve or four- 
teen years t^ith one carpet, unremoved and unshaken. The walls 
and ceilings throughout the building had not been once white- 
washed or cleansed since it was erected. The street gutters in 
front of this abode were rank and offiensive. The privy- vault had 
overflowed, and a new vault had just been dug alongside and made 
to receive a part of the contents of the old. The well, which sup- 
plied so many families with water for culinary and other purposes, 
drained both the gutter and privy, and contained sulphureted hy- 
drogen in appreciable quantity. Fourteen deaths occurred. The 
city authorities caused the house to be vacated and purified. 
About the 28th of October cholera finally disappeared from this 
vicinity. There seemed necessary to produce this disease both a 
local and atmospheric cause, for at every outbreak it was circum- 
scribed to the locality of accumulated filth where it originated, and 
it occurred even there only when the atmospheric conditions were 
favorable — the air warm, moist even to steaminess, foggy at night, 
in slow motion or dead calm, and reeking with the odor of putre- 
faction. The theory of importation seems liar-fetched and improb- 
able. 

" Simultaneously with the cholera there appeared other diseases 
claiming a putrefactive origin, namely, puerperal fever, diarrhoea, 
dysentery, cholera infantum, &c. Hemorrhages, and intermittent 
and remittent fevers, were met with at the same time, but alto- 
gether there was no unusual or unreasonable amount of sickness." 

It has been the history of this, as of all other previous visita- 
tions of the disease, that it has selected the most filthy locations 
for a display of its virulence, locations favorable for the germina- 
34 



266 MEDICAL SOCIETY OP NEW JERSEY. 

tion of disease generally, and at the same time affording an uner- 
ring guide by which its fatality may be mitigated. While atmos- 
pheric influences seem to be the predisposing, telluric or endemic 
causes seem necessary to call the germs into activity. In fact, it 
is another illustration of a somewhat disputed fact, that fever dis- 
tricts have been cholera districts. 

In the cholera of 1832, I am informed by old practitioners and 
residents, that it prevailed almost exclusively where intermittents 
were most rife, and, as it did in Russia, the latter disease seemed 
to give place or be swallowed up by the former ; and, as the chol- 
era disappeared, intermittents again prevailed. 

Theodore R. Varick, M. D., Reporter, 



HUNTERDON COUNTY. 

Chairman of Standing Committee, Src. : 

Dear Sir: — Our part of the county has been unusually healthy 
since the last annual meeting, with the exception of a species of 
catarrh, which I would term a bilious catarrh, which, in many 
cases, commenced early in the winter. It apparently runs the 
eourse of a common catarrh, and, when the sufferer deems himself 
nearly well, it is again and again renewed, apparently without any 
cause. In this way many have passed weeks and months without 
seeking medical advice, and among such there are not a few who 
bid fair to be successful candidates for phthisis, at some future 
day. 

The treatment with me was, in the first stages, mercurial purga- 
tives, until bile was discharged freely, followed by expectorants, 
and these by tonics freely administered. If the cough persisted, 1 
found repeated blistering to answer the best purpose, in effectually 
breaking up the cough ; and the recovery was quicker and more 
perfect than from any other plan of treatment 



BBPORTS OP DISTRICT SOCIETIES. 267 

We have, as we have had for the last two years, some cases of 
intermittent fever, and they mostly, where such diseases were never 
before known to exist, which, I believe, is the forerunner of chol- 
era, and diseases of that tendency. 

These, with a good sprinkling of parotitis, which, at this time, 
prevails among us, is about all that approaches an epidemic char- 
acter. 

Jaundice, for the past two years, has been more frequent than 
common. 

John Blane. 

Pebryville, May 16, 1867. 



MONMOUTH COUNTY. 

Chairman of Standing Committee^ fyc. 

It gives great pleasure to announce that the medical and hygi- 
enic condition of Monmouth county has been favorable the past 
year, and that we have been nearly free from any epidemic, and, 
80 far as I have been able to learn, that the practice either of med- 
icine or surgery has presented no cases of unusual interest. 

The nearest approach to an epidemic in this section has been 
hooping cough, with a tendency to inflammatory action. 

The chief remedy used has been the Bromide of Ammonium. 
This acts very readily, in mild cases, to shorten the spasmodic 
cough, but has no control over the complications, while for these 
the treatment usually adopted for pneumonia has been generally 
successful. 

The diseases incident to the summer season were not so severe 
as the year or two preceding. 

The much dreaded epidemic of cholera did not reach us, al- 
though a few scattering cases were seen and heard of, and these 



268 MEDICAL SOCIETY OP NEW JERSEY. 

could, in general, be traced to some irregularities in diet or undue 
exposure. 

Diphtheria has scarcely made its appearance, scarlatina having 
taken its place during the present spring months, though not in a 
very malignant form. In my own practice there has been more 
fever cases than the year or two preceding, with a tendency to ty- 
phoid symptoms, while I cannot recall a single case of "cerebro 
spinal meningitis" or " spotted fever." 

In fact, the medical topography of our county is so favorable, 
that we are almost exempt from epidemics or miasmatic diseases. 

The status of the profession in this county is commendable. Onr 
annual meetings are well attended, and the past year we had quite an 
increase in numbers. Death has, however, entered our circle, lir. 
D. W. Barclay, of Blue Ball, died in March last of pulmonic dis- 
ease. He was a man much respected by the profession and his 
numerous friends. 

H. G. CooKB, Reporter. 

HoLMDELL, N. J., May 14, 1867. 



PASSAIC COUNTY. 

Chairman of Standing Committee, tfc. : 

The year 1866 has been characterized in this district by the ab- 
sence of epidemics. 

Intermittents, which have been so prevalent for several years 
past, were much milder, and existed, as a general rule, only in par- 
ticular localities, near stagnant water or marshy land. In such 
places they are liable to modify all our inflammatory and febrile 
affections. 

In order to accommodate the greatly increasing population of 
this city during the past year, many new streets have been opened 
and graded, and cellars dug, preparatory to building, thus expos- 



REPORTS OF DISTRICT SOCIETIES. 269 

ing much new soil to the action of the sun, and offering what here- 
tofore have been considered favorable conditions for the produc- 
tion of malaria. Intermittents have, at the same time, diminished 
in frequency and violence. 

Occasional cases of typhoid fever have occurred, mostly of a 
mild character. This disease prevailed as an epidemic with us in 
the summer of 1863, previous to which it was seldom seen. Since 
that time there has been a greater or less tendency in all our fevers 
and inflammatory affections to take on a typhoid type. 
• Scarlatina has been for the most part mild, with the exception 
of a few cases that have occurred recently of a malignant charac- 
ter, attended with sloughing of the tonsils and uvula. Two of 
these, that fell under my care, recovered, to my astonishment, after 
extensive devastation had taken place in the throat, with its ac- 
companying prostration of the vital powers. 1 am inclined to at- 
tribute the favorable termination in these cases to the use of the 
hyposulphite of soda, given internally and used as a wash to the 
throat. 

Rubeola has been sometimes prevalent, but generally in a mild 
form. 

Diphtheria never has prevailed as an epidemic in this region, 
although cases occasionally occur, more especially in damp locali- 
ties, where the atmospheric conditions are favorable. These, how- 
ever, are generally mild, and attended with slight deposit upon the 
throat. 

We have to treat, during the summer months, the usual quantity 
of bowel complaints, and during cold weather, the ordinary pul- 
monary and throat affections. 

Bronchitis was particularly prevalent, especially among children, 
during the early part of the winter, accompanied, in many cases, 
by congestion or inflammation of the lungs. Asthmatic symptoms 
were present in some cases, while all were stubborn in yielding to 
treatment. 

The above remarks apply to the district comprised within the 



270 MEDICAL SOCIETY OF NEW JERSEY. 

limits of the city of Paterson, together with the townships of Man- 
chester, Aquackanonck and Wayne. The northern portion of our 
county, consisting of the townships of Pompton and West Milford, 
not being represented in our Medical Society, I have no means of 
learning its condition. 

Two interesting cases of placental detachment before labor, and 
two of hepatic abscess, reported by Dr. Van Riper, of this city, 
are herewith presented. 

R. J. Whitely, Reporter. 
Paterson, January 12, 1867. 

Dr. Van Riper's Cases. — Case of Hepatic Abscess, No. 1. 

Thomas B , aged about forty-five years, teamster, of a scrof- 
ulous habit, but generally having enjoyed good health, with the 
exception of the formation of an anal fistula a few years ago, which 
has caused him considerable inconvenience, but has not prevented 
him from attending to his work. Was called to see him December 
29, 1865; found him suflFering with febrile excitement, cough and 
severe lancinating pains in the right side, over the region of the 
liver and extending upwards. Countenance of a dull, yellowish 
appearance. Diagnosis, inflamation of liver, pleura, bronchial tubes. 
Ord. Emplas. Vesic. to have bowels freely moved and an alterative 
and expectorant mixture. Saw him occasionally for the next two 
weeks, at the expiration of which he was taken with severe pain in 
the right thigh, extending from the trochanter downwards, urine 
highly colored, depositing a decided brick-dust sediment, consid- 
erable febrile excitement, &c. The cough, distress in side &c., 
having subsided. Ordered Sod. et Pot. Tart, and Morph. Con- 
tinued for several days ; no improvement ; when he complained of 
severe throbbing pain over the region of the floating ribs, in the 
right side. Suspected there might be an abscess forming ; exam- 
ined thoroughly, but could detect nothing. Ordered Potass lod. and 
Morph., to relieve distress. He continued thus for a few days, 
when, on examining him, 1 detected a slight fullness on the right 



REPORTS "op district SOCIETIES. 271 

side, about three and a-half or four inches from the vertebral col- 
umn, and on palpation found fluctuation. Ordered cataplasm to 
side, and to take 01. Morrhui and Syr. Ferri lodidi. Continued 
this until January 29, 1866, when the enlargement becoming prom- 
inent, and the fluctuation distinct, I, accompanied by Dr. Blun- 
dell, introduced an exploring needle, entering the sac, but obtain- 
ing no pus. We concluded to wait a few days before entering it 
with the bistoury. Ordered Quinine Sulph. with other reme- 
dies. On January 31st, found the walls of sac flaccid. He had 
expectorated about three-fourths of a pint of yellowish pus during 
the past night. Continued same treatment. The patient remained 
in pretty much the same condition, expectorating several ounces 
in a few hours, and then ceasing for several hours at a time, until 
February 9th, when 1 found pus oozing through the small opening 
made by the exploring needle. I then enlarged the opening to a 
moderate degree ; considerable discharging. At noon of same day 
he was seized with a violent fit of coughing, and expectorated a 
large quantity of purulent material. 

February 10. — General appearance good ; pulse 96, soft, com- 
pressible, appetite improved. Abscess has discharged a large 
amount through external opening since yesterday. Introduced 
director and moderately enlarged the opening. 

February 15. — Decided improvement in every respect: has 
had no expectoration of moment since 9th inst. ; still small amount 
of semi-purulent material oozing from external opening. The dis- 
charges ceased entirely, and the sac appeared completely obscured 
by the last of March ; and by the 1st of May he attended to his 
business as usual. 

Case op Hepatic Abscess, No. 2. 

Mrs. C , aged about thirty-nine years, stout, fleshy, and of 

lymphatic temperament, has had several children; and heretofore 
always enjoyed good health. I was called to see her September 
22, 1866. Was informed that she had been ailing for the past 



272 MEDICAL SOCIETY OP NEW JERSEY* 

four weeks, she having been delivered of a healthy child two 
months ago, and that she had a good convalescence. Symptoms : 
A decidedly anxious expression of countenance, color of a sallow or 
yellow cast, a sighing or moaning with each respiration, pulse 120, 
full and gaseous; bowels constipated, tongue dry and thickly 
coated ; no severe pain, but a great deal of tenderness over the 
epigastric region, and extending towards the right side. Diag- 
nosis : Hepatitis, with the formation, of an abscess, liver decided- 
ly enlarged. Ordered Emp. Vesic, Hydr-G-Creta, Morphia and 
Quinia, beef tea, &c. 

September 23. — Symptoms same. Ordered 01. Ricini, and 
continued same. 

September 24. — Continued same. 

September 25. — ^No change. 

September 27. — Continued same , with milk punch as much as 
she could take. 

September 29. — No change. 

October 1. — She has had several chills during the preceding 
night, accompanied with a number of dysenteric discharges, but no 
tenesmus. 

October 2, 4 P. M. — The dysenteric discharges continued until 
2 o'clock this P. M., when she had passed about a pint of greenish 
purulent material. 

October 4. — Countenance more natural, except emaciated, pulse 
96, feeble ; says she feels well, only weak. 

She informed me that about 8 o'clock P. M., on the 2d inst., she 
vomited about a quart of offensive purulent material, and about one 
o'clock at night she vomited about as much more ; since which she 
has not passed any amount, either from mouth or rectum. She 
made a remarkably good and speedy convalescence. 

Placental Detachment Before Labor. 

Mrs. A , on coming home from church, in September, 1864, 

slipped, jarring herself considerably, but not falling, she having 



REPORTS OP DISTRICT SOCIETIES. 273 

hold of her husband^s arm. She thought nothing of it at the time^ 
but on arriving at home she became very faint, so that she had to 
lie down some time before removing her garments. She rested 
comfortably during the night, but in the morning was taken in la- 
bor, the pains, however, being very slight ; they continued to in- 
crease during the day, and the child was bom between 6 and 7 
o'clock in the evening. Child still-born. Immediately afterwards 
the placenta was expelled, with about a quart of clotted blood. 

In November, 1865, 1 was called to see a lady in labor. When 
I came in the room the nurse informed me that the lady was pass- 
ing blood. I immediately examined her, finding no hemorrhage, 
but several dark colored clots which she had passed. The os 
being well dilated and dilatable, I ruptured the membmnes, and 
the child was born in about one and a-half hours. Child still-born. 
In a few moments I delivered the placenta, it being followed by 
about a pint of dark clotted blood ; no hemorrhage. I questioned 
the lady whether she had had a fall or sudden jar within the last 
few days. She answered, no, but that her little boy, weighing 
about thirty pounds, had not been very well the past week, and 
that she had been in the habit of carrying him up and down stairs, 
when going to and fro to her meals. She also stated that she had 
felt no life for the past two days. 

The children, in both these cases, were males, fully developed 
and of large size, weighing 11 and 11^ lbs. The mothers were 
both short, stout and of lymphatic temperaments. 

C. S. Van Eiper. 



SOMERSET COUNTY. 
Chairman of Standing Committee, Src. : 

In the latter part of Winter and Spring, inflammatory aflfections, 
35 



274 MEDICAL SOCIETY OP NEW JEBSEY. 

principally" of the respiratory organs, produced by the sudden 
changes of weather, prevailed as in other years, some cases obsti- 
nate and severe, but generally yielding to the usual treatment, or 
if modified in any respect, it was in their typhoid tendency, not 
bearing blood-letting and active antiphlogistic remedies well, but 
requiring stimulants early in the disease. 

The excessively warm and dry weather during a part of June 
and July, was, as is doubtless well remembered, followed by a pe- 
riod very cool and damp. The sudden transition produced a great 
amount of sickness. In this vicinity, dysentery, cholera morbus, 
and cholera infantum, dll of a very severe character, prevailed to 
an alarming extent. In many cases, the attacks were so severe that 
the most prompt and energetic treatment was^ required to prevent 
the victims from sinking in a few hours into fatal collapse. Your 
reporter found nothing so eflFectual in the dysenteric cases as large 
doses of opium, and in the others, small doses of opium and calo- 
mel, often repeated, were attended with most satisfactory results. 

The same atmospheric changes were felt throughout the county, 
only modified, probably by local circumstances. Dysentery pre- 
vailed as an epidemic in several localities not contiguous, mostly 
in the northern and mountainous portions of the county. In 
these districts, the most satisfactory results were obtained from 
the saline treatment, as it is called. 

A mild epidemic of diphtheria is reported to have taken place 
among a settlement of blacks near Somerville, readily yielding to 
treatment, and I believe the cases throughout the county have 
been of a more kindly disposition than, during former years. And 
the same may be said of scarlatina, as we have found no specific. 
We treat them more from the beginning with tonics and stimulants 
than in former years, and with greater success. 

Wm. E. Mattison, Reporter. 
Millstone, January, 1867. 



REPOB'm OF DISTRICT SOCIETIES. 275 

SUSSEX COUNTY. 

Chairman of Standing Committee, Src. : 

The diseases of this county for the past year have presented lit- 
tle that calls for special notice, and the same might be written 
concerning them that has been written year after year. Although 
the Winter and Spring months were accompanied by the usual 
severe inflammatory diseases of the lungs, and were marked by the 
termination of many cases of phthisis, the year, as a whole, has 
been remarkable for its immunity from sickness, requiring a long 
continued attendance of the physician. As compared with former 
years, I believe it is the general experience that malarial disease 
has been more common than for years before, and this not confined 
I to particular localities, or accounted for by any apparent cause. 

I Intermittent headaches are becoming more common occurrences in 

the practice of our physicians, and some of the remedies used in 
intermittent fevers are essential to the cure of most of the cases, 
though they are not broken up with the same readiness and cer- 
I tainty. Hypodermic injections of morphia afibrd a valuable relief 

I in these cases, but the necessity of following this up with anti-pe- 

riodic doses of Fowler's Solution, or other remedies of like char- 
acter, as well as its periodic occurrence, point to its malarial origin. 
I Scarlet fever and hooping cough have prevailed throughout the 

I year, and have been characterized by a limited fatality, being mild. 

I Dr. John Miller, of Andover, has had several interesting cases 

I of diseases of bones. One of them he reports to me as follows : 

" W S , a boy seven years old, previously healthy, had 

periostitis of the inferior third of the left femur, of six or seven 
weeks duration, when I saw him. The inflammation was exten- 
sive, involving the surroundings of the joint. He had been treated 
by the attending physician for inflammatory rheumatism. Suppu- 
ration was diagnosed, and an incision made near the middle and 
lower third of the thigh. Pus, with globules of oil floating upon 
its surface, was freely discharged. An examination with a probe 



276 MEDICAL SOCIETY OP NEW JEBSEY. 

detected caries of the femur. The pain and fever soon subsided, 
but suppuration and excavation of bone continued during a period of 
three months, when a slight accident (falling from a low chair in 
which he was placed) fractured the femur at the seat of disease. 
The limb was now suspended in Smith's wire splint. The absorp- 
tion of the femur continued with greater activity in the superior 
portion, through a period of seven or eight weeks, when a parental 
change of residence brought him directly under my care. A 
diarrhoea of three weeks duration, attended with alarming prostra- 
tion, had reduced him almost to a skeleton. An examination of 
the thigh at this time, while out of the splint, revealed a loss of 
continuity in the femur, about four inches in length, extending 
through the middle third with abrupt terminations, which could 
be distinctly traced by the fingers through the atrophied muscles. 
The inferior extremity of the limb could be carried to a right angle 
with the superior portion without causing pain or uneasiness. It was 
still kept in the splint, and sufficient counter-extension attained by 
elevating the foot of his bed. Astringents and tonics soon controlled 
the diarrhoea, and the destruction of bone was here arrested, 
lodureted iodide of potassium in syr. sarsaparilla, together with 
phosphate of lime, was now administered. Reparative ossification 
soon commenced, and projecting from each end of the femur into 
the space, soon supplied the deficiency, and without shortening. 
The external opening closed, and in a comparatively short space 
of time the leg was sufficiently strong to admit of use in locomotion. 
A year and a half have elapsed since the cure was completed; his 
health is now good, and there is no limping or sign of returning 
disease." 

Dr. Thomas Ryerson, ot Newton, reports some cases in confir- 
mation of the recently discovered fact of the antidotal powers ol 
belladonna, in narcotism. He shows that even when deglutition is 
impossible, atropine may be used in doses of l-32d to l-12th of a 
grain, repeated in very urgent cases, every hour, until the 
specific signs of its impressing the system begin to appear. He 



REPORTS OF DISTRICT SOCIETIES. 277 

gives me facts, however, to show that Morbus Brightii will some- 
times prevent the success of the remedy. For further information 
on this subject, he refers to the published reports of Da Costa, of 

Philadelphia. 

Jonathan Havens, Reporter, 

Newton, May 13th, 1867. 



WARREN COUNTY. 

Chairman of Standing Committee^ Src. : 

During the year last past, diseases here have presented little in 
their character or treatment that demands special notice. Fully 
armed and prepared, as we supposed we must be for the expected 
invasion of cholera, and a great increase in the number and inten- 
sity of affections of the bowels, the Summer and the Fall passed with 
rather less than more of this form of disease, and the Winter found 
us facing an imaginary foe. 

None of the accustomed epidemic diseases of children have pre- 
vailed here. Scarlet fever, measles, hooping cough, and diphtheria 
have scarcely been known in our midst, or if known, have been so 
circumscribed, and in so mild a form, as to occasion no alarm. 

Pneumonia was prevalent during the Winter of '66 and Spring 
of '67, but few of the cases were severe. The instances in which 
the attack was double, and in which the upper lobes were involved. 
I think were rare. The type of the disease, as it came under my 
observation, was asthenic, throwing aside the necessity for the use 
of the lancet, with others of the list of depleting remedies. The 
supporting treatment, consisting of tonic remedies, alcoholic stimu- 
lants, and a nutritious diet, with opium and veratrum viride 
in those cases accompanied with undue muscular and nervous ex- 
citement, comprised the treatment, and I believe was generally 
successful — but few cases terminating fatally. 

Typho malarial fever, (an essential fever) so common to the 



278 MEDICAL SOCIBTT OP NEW JERSEY. 

upper portions of our county, has, I learn, daring the past year, 
been much modified, both in its intensity and the frequency of its 
attacks. The form of disease has been fully and well described by 
Dr. Johnson, of Blairstown, in a former report to the Standing 
Committee, and should my information be correct as to its gradual 
disappearance, our county will, we hope, soon be rid of a disease 
supposed to be epidemic to the locality mentioned. 

Our County Society, I am sorry to say, exists but feebly. The 
organization is still kept up, and we hope to induce ere long some 
of the very good material we have, to join us in our work. 

No violation of the code of medical ethics has come to my know- 
ledge, and the profession seem to get along together harmooioiisly. 

Samuel S. Clabk, Reporter. 

MERCER COUNTY. 
No Report. 

MIDDLESEX COUNTY. 
No Report. 



List of Members of District Societies. 



REPORTED AT THE ANNUAL MEETING, 1867. 





BURLINGTON COUNTY. 




Beoj. H. Stratton, 


Mount H&ay. 


Samuel 0. Thornton, 




Zachariab Read, 


« 


G«orge Haines, 


Medford. 


Andrew E. Budd, 


it 


Alex. Elwell, 


rincetUoum. 


Henry M.(lx>ngstreet, 


Bordeniiown. 


Ellis P. Townsend, 


Beverly. 


James D. Young, 


u 


Wm. L. Martin, 


RaneoeHt. 


LewiB P. Jamison, 


t( 


Theodore T. Price, 


Tvdcerton. 


J. Howard Pugh, 


Bwrlxfifflotu 


George Goodell, 


PlaiUbwrg. 


Franklin Ganntt, 


u 


Richard H. Page, 


ColumXmt. 


Isaac P. Coleman, 


remhertoH, 


Abner Woodward, 


SheUUmm. 


Aaron Reid, 


i( 


John W. Webb, 








E. B. TOWNSBNO, Beverly, Acretary, 




CAMDEN 


COUNTY. 


.c 


Isaac S. Malford, 


Camden. 


H. Genet Taylor, 


Camden. 


Othniel H. Taylor, 


u 


H. E. Brannin, 




A. D. Woodroff, 


Hadtbmfidd. 


J. Gilbert Yonng, 




Richard M. Cooper, 


Cainden. 


John R. Stevenson, 


Camden. 


John V. Bchenck, 


u 


Alex. Marcy, 


u 


Thomas P. Cullen, 


u 


Jonathan J. Comfort, 


HaddonfiOd. 


John W. Bnowden, 


WaUrfm-d. 


J. M. Ridge, 


Camden. 


N. fi. Jennings, 


Haddonfidd. 








CUMBERLAND COUNTY. 




Wm. S.'Bowen, 


BridifeUm, 


Robert M. Bateman, 


CedarvUU. 


William Elmer, 


u 


Geo.Tomlinson, 




J. Barron Potter, 


it 


Enoch Fithian, 




Joseph Sheppard, 


tt 


Thos. E. Statbems, 


u 


Robert W. Elmer, 


it 


Samuel G. Cattell, 


DeerfiOd. 


Wm. Elmer, Jr., 


u 


Chad. C. PhilUps, 


u 


B. Rush Bateman, 


CtdamiXU. 


Thos. H. Tomlinson, 


ShiUh. 


Eli E. Bateman, 


u 


Stetson L. Bacon, 


Newport. 


Ephralm Bateman, 


u 


Geo. K. Batcher, 


DMdingOrmk. 



Wm. SLinm, Bridgeton, Secrelarf. 



280 



MEDICAL SOCIETY OP NEW JERSEY. 



ESSEX COUNTY. 



S. E. Arms, 


ElUahtth. 


Wm. O'Gorman, 


Newark. 


M. Baldwin, 


Newark. 


E. A. Osborne, 


u 


F. N. Bennett, 


Orange. 


J. D. Osborne, 


*( 


Brain, 


Jrxftftfftcfim 


8. H. Pennington, 


(t 


J. D. Bmmley, 


Newark. 


Stephen Personett, 


Verona. 


J. 8. Crane, 


Elizabeth. 


Wm. PiersoD, 


Orange, 


J. Henry Clark, 


Newark. 


Wm. Pierson, Jr., 


u 




u 


D. M. Skinner, 


BeOeriOe. 


J. A. Corwin, 


u 


E. D. G. Smith, 


Newark. 


J. A. Cross, 


t( 


D. 8. Smith, 


Irvingttm. 


B. L. Dodd, 


M 


D. W. Smith, 


Netoark. 


A. N. Dougherty, 


li 


Stickncy, 


ii 


Jas. Elliott, 


C( 


Wm. Taylor, 


ct 


C. Eyrich, 


U 


H. H. Tichenor, 


tt 


G. Grant, 


u 


A. Ward, 


u 


Eugene Jobs, 


Springfield. 


J. F. Ward, 


u 


D. C. Hickey, 


Newark. 


Robt. Weatcott, 


ElizabeOu 


Edgar Holden, 


u 


Ed. T. Whittingham, 


MiWntm. 


Max Euechler, 


Ci 


Stephen Wickcs, 


Orange. 


C. F. Lehlbach, 


u 


A. W. WoodhuU, 


Newark. 


J. H. H. Love, 


Monidair. 


Lett Southard, 


(t 


A. M. Mills, 


Netoark. 


Wm. H. Wells, 


u 


E. P. Nichols, 


u 


C. M. Zeh, 


(( 


L A. Nichols, 


u 


^ L. M. Crane, 


Orange. 


L. W. Oakley, 









Edgak HoLDXir, Newark, Secretary. 



GLOUCESTER COUNTT. 



Joseph !F1thian, 
John R. Bickler, 
Charles Garrison, 
Luther F. Halsey, 
E. L. Beeves, 



J. M. Comelison, 
T. R. Varick, 
J. E. Culver, 
A. A. Sutkins, 
J. H. Vondy, 
Chas. Taggart, 
R. F. Chabeit, 
E.W.Buck, 
S. R. Fuxuian, 
T. F. Morris, 

E. P. Boifett, 

F. G. Payne, 
J. W. Hunt, 



Woodbt$ry. 

Oarpenier^s Landing. 

Swedetboro. 

Pa«2t6oro. 

HUDSON 

JerweyCOg. 

u 

Btubon COg. 
Jerseg dig. 






Jer$egCag. 



^araegCiig. 



Herman, 

Glandon, 

Tieman, 

Clark, 

Jas. C. Weatherby, 

COUNTY. 

F. E. Noble, 
Jos. F. Finn, 
Jas. Craig, 
Jas. Wilkinson, 
R A. Watson, 
J. T. Field, 

J. B. Bordett, 

G. W. Talson, 
J. H. Comfort, 
M. A. Miller, 
G. W. Edwards, 
J. H. McDowell, 
B. Benson. 



(fUtrlonoro. 



HvdnnCitg. 

vTeeMW9Cn. 

Jerteg dig. 



Jerweg (?itg. 
SattertvaU. 
Hudson (TOg. 
Weal Hobcken.^ 



Jerteg €Mg, 



MBintEBS OF DISTRICT SOCIETIBS. 



98) 



MERCER COUNTY. 



J. H. PhiUipB, 


JtemingUnu 


H. S. Desanger, 


Trenton, 


J. B. Coleman, 


TrenUm, 


R. R. Rogers, 


u 


J. L. Taylor, 


M 


G. Shepherd, 


(( 


John Woolverton, 


<C 


D. P. Vail, 


i( 


W. W. L. FhUlipa, 


u 


IX Warman, 


it 


B. J. Grant, 


i( 


L. Leavitt, 


u 


T. J. CorBon, 


u 


J. L. Bodine, 


PHvcettm. 




u 


J B. James, 


Trenton, 


C. Hod«e, 


It 


P. McCaffty, 


K 


O.H.Bartine, 


Prinaton, 







B* B> FreBBiMii, 
Samael B. HVeeman, 
A. D. Newell, 
Clifford Morrogh, 
Chas. H. Voorhees, 
AngQBtas F.Taylor, 
Charles Danham, Jr., 
H.'B. Baldwin, 
N. Kaemmerer, 
J. W. Heel^er, 
Dayid Stephens, 



J. B. Jambs, Trenton, Secv€tary. 



MIDDLESEX COUNTY. 



Wo9d3bridge, 



New Brimsufick, 



John J. DeMotte, 
AmhzoBe Treganowan, 
G-eorge W. Stout, 
C. E. Woodward, 
C. H. Slaek, 
A. S. Titsworth, 
John C. Thompson, 
E. M. Hunt, 
C. ^cK. Smith, 
R. J. Brumagen, 
Dr. Willis, 



New Brumwidt 
South Ambosf. 



Dayton, 
New Market, 
Washington, 
Metuchen, 
Perth Amboy, 
Spottnoood. 
Perth Amboy, 



J. W. Mbbkir, New Brunswick, Semretar^f, 
MONMOUTH COUNTY. 



John J. Woodhnll, 


Preeheid, 




PerrineviOe, 


Jeremiah S. EngUsk, 




James B. Goodenough, 


Blue Ball, 


Rohert W. Cooke, 




A. A. Howell, 


AUentown, 


Arthwr V. Conover, 


PrethdUL 


S. M. Dlsbrow, 


SqimnkutH. 


Sdw»rd Taylor, 




William D. NeweU, 




Alfred R Dayton, 


Maiawan, 


Henry R Cooke, 




William A. Newell, 




A. A. Higgins, 




John Voght, 


Preehold, 


John Cook, 




Rohert Laird, 


Squan ViUage, 


Charles B. Hall, 




John R. Conover, 




Charles Deshler, 




Rohert R. Conover, 


Bed Bank, 


Isaac L. Long. 




J. E. ArrowBmith, 


Acyportm 










JoHH VooHT, Freehold, Secretary, 




PASSAIC 


COUNTY. 




Alexander W. Rogers, 


Patenon, 


WiUiam Blundell, 


Paterion, 


Ridley Kent, 


u 


Cornelius S. Van Riper, 


u 


Lemuel Burr, 


li 


S. R. at errill, 


u 


Jetur R. RiggB, 


CI 


O. W. Terriherry, 


u 


John Qnin, 


M 


H. C. Van Giesen, 


u 


Hiohael Mom, 


a 


ThomaB B, Dawher, 


« 


QohertJ.Whitely, 


« 


Q, Te?hqne, 


^a#w<9. 


36 









282 



MEDICAL SOCIETY OP NEW JERSEY. 



Onon Barnes, 
Henry Van Blarcom, 
Oawald Warner, 



John W. Craig, 
Robert 8. Smith, 
Henry H. VanDerveer, 
Samnel K. Martin, 
H. P. VanDerveer, 
P.D.McKieaack, 
L. H. Mosher, 
James O. Maynard, 
William R Rlbble, 
fi. G. Wagoner, 



JohnR. Stuart, 
David M. Bayre, 
- Thomas Ryerson, 
Pranklin Smith, 
Charles R. Nelden, 
Jonathan Havens, 
John Tits worth, 
Alexander Linn, 
Thomas Roe, 
Charles V. Moore, 



R. A. Terhnne, " 

Cornelias Van Riper, ** 

Albert R. Randall, << 

C. S. Vah Ripkb, Faterson, Seerdary, 



SOMKRSET COUNTY. 



Plainfidd. 
Bound Brook, 
SomerviUe. 
MarHntnUe, 
SomerviUe, 
MUUtotu. 
Origgttown, 
Six Mile Bun, 
MiUMUme, 
SomernOe. 



SUSSKX 

Newton. 



Deckertown. 



Bevant P. 0. 
Stillvfoter. 



J. P. Berg, 
John V. Robbins, 
Robert H. Morey, 
P. T. Satphen, 
WlUlam B. Mattison, 
Joseph B. Butphen, 
John C. Satphen, 
James S. Knox, 
James D. VanDerveer, 
Jesse S. B. Rlbble, 

H. H. VahDbrvsbb, 

COUNTY. 

John Linn Allen, 
John Miller, 
William H. Linn, 
William J. Roe, 
Joseph Hedges, 
R. G. Maines, 
Engene Schamo, 
P. N. Jacobns, 
A. P. Parries, 



North Branch. 
South Branch. 
Bound Brook, 
Peapack, 
MiUstone. 
Pluckamin. 
Plainjield. 
SomerviUe. 
Liberty Comer, 
Sarlingen. 

SomerviUe, Secretary. 



Lafayette. 
Andover. 
Hamburg. 
Branchvitte. 

u 
Tranquility. 
Laytons. 
FJatbroohviUe 
BemerviUe. 



EnoBKE SoHUMO, Laytons, Secretary. 



The District Medical Societies, in reporting the names of Members, are requested to state 
their residence, also the address of the President and Secretary, and the time of their stated 
meetings. 



CONTENTS. 



List op Opficebs pou 1867 Page 2 

Minutes of the Annual Mrbtino " 3 

Rbfobts of Committees " 14 

Heports op Deleoateb to other Societies " 21 

President's Address *' 30 

Thrombosis, by J. V. Schenck, M. D " 53 

Public Health, by E. M. Hunt, M. D " 57 

Historical Paper, by J. Henry Clark, M. D " 77 

Index TO Same '* 182 

Report of Standino Committee " 185 

In Memoriam " 199 

Obituaries " 203 

Reports of District Societies " 218 

Bergen County, by Dr. Hasbrou'^^k " 218 

BuRLiNQTON CouNTY, by Dr. J. P. Coleman " 223 

Camden County, by Dr. R. M. Cooper " 227 

Paper on Cholera in Camden, by Dr. J. R. Stevenson. ... " 285 

Metborolooical Tables " 244 

Cumberland County, by Dr. W. Elmer, Jr " 249 

Essex County, by Dr. Arthur Ward " 253 

Dr. Pibrson, Jr., on the Bromides in Epilepsy " 255 

Gloucester County, by Dr. L. G. Halsey " 257 

Hudson County, by Dr. T. R. Varick " 260 

Hunterdon County, by Dr. Jno. Blane " 266 

Monmouth County, by Dr. H. G. Cooke " 267 

Passaic County, by Dr. R. J. Whitely ." 268 

Hepatic Abscess, by Dr. C. S. Van Riper " 270 

Placental Detachment before Labor, by Dr. C. S, Van ) .^ o-o 

Riper J '*''* 

Somerset County, by Dr. W. E. Mattison ** 278 

Sussex County, by Dr. Jonathan Havens " 276 

Warren County, by Dr. Samuel S. Clark " 277 

List of Mbmbbrs of District Societies '^ 279